Chronic inflammation in the colorectum, a significant contributor to colorectal carcinogenesis, can be triggered by the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways such as those initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nuclear factor B (NF-B). Although experimental evidence supports calcium and vitamin D potentially modifying these proinflammatory pathways in the colorectum, human data in these regards are scarce. We investigated supplemental calcium (1,200 mg daily) and/or vitamin D 3 (1,000 IU daily) effects on inflammatory signaling pathway-related biomarkers in a subset of 105 participants from a colorectal adenoma recurrence chemoprevention clinical trial. We assessed expression of TLR4 and TLR5, which recognize the bacterial components lipopolysaccharides and flagellin, respectively, and phospho-IKKα/β (pIKKα/β), a biomarker of inflammation, in the normal-appearing rectal crypt epithelium and stroma using standardized, automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Following 1 year of treatment, TLR4, TLR5, and pIKKα/β expression in the rectal mucosa did not statistically significantly change with vitamin D or calcium supplementation, taken alone or in combination. Several baseline participant characteristics, including body mass index, history of sessile serrated adenomas, high red/processed meat intake, and high levels of rectal epithelial cell proliferation (as measured by MIB-1/Ki-67), were associated with higher baseline expression of TLRs or pIKKα/β. Our findings suggest that vitamin D and calcium may have no substantial effect on the investigated biomarkers. However, several modifiable lifestyle factors may be associated with TLRs and pIKKα/β expression in the normal rectal mucosa, supporting their future investigation as potentially treatable, preneoplastic risk factors for colorectal neoplasms. Cancer Prev Res; 11(11); 707–16. ©2018 AACR .