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  • 2015-2019  (55)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-binding nuclear protein, plays a critical role in sepsis by acting as a key "late-phase" inflammatory mediator. Integrin CD11b is essential for inflammatory cell activation and migration, thus mediating inflammatory responses. However, it is unclear whether CD11b participates in the development of sepsis. In this study, we report that CD11b contributes to LPS-induced endotoxin shock and microbial sepsis, as antagonism of CD11b with the CD11b blocking Ab or CD11b inhibitor Gu-4 protects mice against LPS- and microbial sepsis-related lethality, which is associated with significantly diminished serum HMGB1 levels. Consistent with this, CD11b-deficient mice were more resistant to microbial sepsis with a much lower serum HMGB1 level compared with wild-type mice. Pharmacological blockage and genetic knockdown/knockout of CD11b in murine macrophages hampered LPS-stimulated HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation and extracellular release. Furthermore, silencing CD11b interrupted the interaction of HMGB1 with either a nuclear export factor chromosome region maintenance 1 or classical protein kinase C and inhibited classical protein kinase C–induced HMGB1 phosphorylation, the potential underlying mechanism(s) responsible for CD11b blockage-induced suppression of HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation and subsequent extracellular release. Thus, our results highlight that CD11b contributes to the development of sepsis, predominantly by facilitating nucleocytoplasmic translocation and active release of HMGB1.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhao, Ling -- Chen, Xiang-Jun -- Zhu, Jie -- Xi, Yi-Bo -- Yang, Xu -- Hu, Li-Dan -- Ouyang, Hong -- Patel, Sherrina H -- Jin, Xin -- Lin, Danni -- Wu, Frances -- Flagg, Ken -- Cai, Huimin -- Li, Gen -- Cao, Guiqun -- Lin, Ying -- Chen, Daniel -- Wen, Cindy -- Chung, Christopher -- Wang, Yandong -- Qiu, Austin -- Yeh, Emily -- Wang, Wenqiu -- Hu, Xun -- Grob, Seanna -- Abagyan, Ruben -- Su, Zhiguang -- Tjondro, Harry Christianto -- Zhao, Xi-Juan -- Luo, Hongrong -- Hou, Rui -- Perry, J Jefferson P -- Gao, Weiwei -- Kozak, Igor -- Granet, David -- Li, Yingrui -- Sun, Xiaodong -- Wang, Jun -- Zhang, Liangfang -- Liu, Yizhi -- Yan, Yong-Bin -- Zhang, Kang -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 22;526(7574):595. doi: 10.1038/nature15253. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308894" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: The mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) family of proteins (including MLL1-MLL4, SET1A and SET1B) specifically methylate histone 3 Lys4, and have pivotal roles in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in haematopoiesis and development. The methyltransferase activity of MLL1, by itself severely compromised, is stimulated by the three conserved factors WDR5, RBBP5 and ASH2L, which are shared by all MLL family complexes. However, the molecular mechanism of how these factors regulate the activity of MLL proteins still remains poorly understood. Here we show that a minimized human RBBP5-ASH2L heterodimer is the structural unit that interacts with and activates all MLL family histone methyltransferases. Our structural, biochemical and computational analyses reveal a two-step activation mechanism of MLL family proteins. These findings provide unprecedented insights into the common theme and functional plasticity in complex assembly and activity regulation of MLL family methyltransferases, and also suggest a universal regulation mechanism for most histone methyltransferases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Yanjing -- Han, Jianming -- Zhang, Yuebin -- Cao, Fang -- Liu, Zhijun -- Li, Shuai -- Wu, Jian -- Hu, Chunyi -- Wang, Yan -- Shuai, Jin -- Chen, Juan -- Cao, Liaoran -- Li, Dangsheng -- Shi, Pan -- Tian, Changlin -- Zhang, Jian -- Dou, Yali -- Li, Guohui -- Chen, Yong -- Lei, Ming -- R01 GM082856/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):447-52. doi: 10.1038/nature16952. Epub 2016 Feb 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 333 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China. ; Shanghai Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204, China. ; Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023, China. ; Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1301 Catherine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of the Chinese Ministry of Education, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. ; Shanghai Information Center for Life Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China. ; National Laboratory for Physical Science at the Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886794" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-18
    Description: Activated platelets release functional, high m.w. epidermal growth factor (HMW-EGF). In this study, we show platelets also express epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) protein, but not ErbB2 or ErbB4 coreceptors, and so might respond to HMW-EGF. We found HMW-EGF stimulated platelet EGFR autophosphorylation, PI3 kinase-dependent AKT phosphorylation, and a Ca 2+ transient that were blocked by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition. Strong (thrombin) and weak (ADP, platelet-activating factor) G protein-coupled receptor agonists and non–G protein-coupled receptor collagen recruited EGFR tyrosine kinase activity that contributed to platelet activation because EGFR kinase inhibition reduced signal transduction and aggregation induced by each agonist. EGF stimulated ex vivo adhesion of platelets to collagen-coated microfluidic channels, whereas systemic EGF injection increased initial platelet deposition in FeCl 3 -damaged murine carotid arteries. EGFR signaling contributes to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tumorigenesis, but the source of its ligand is not established. We find individual platelets were intercalated within OSCC tumors. A portion of these platelets expressed stimulation-dependent Bcl-3 and IL-1β and so had been activated. Stimulated platelets bound OSCC cells, and material released from stimulated platelets induced OSCC epithelial–mesenchymal transition and stimulated their migration and invasion through Matrigel barriers. Anti-EGF Ab or EGFR inhibitors abolished platelet-induced tumor cell phenotype transition, migration, and invasion; so the only factor released from activated platelets necessary for OSCC metastatic activity was HMW-EGF. These results establish HMW-EGF in platelet function and elucidate a previously unsuspected connection between activated platelets and tumorigenesis through rapid, and prolonged, autocrine-stimulated release of HMW-EGF by tumor-associated platelets.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Intestinal alkaline SMase (Alk-SMase) cleaves phosphocholine from SM, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and lysophosphatidylcholine. We recently found that colitis-associated colon cancer was 4- to 5-fold enhanced in Alk-SMase KO mice. Here, we further studied the pathogenesis of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in WT and KO mice. Compared with WT mice, KO mice demonstrated greater body weight loss, more severe bloody diarrhea, broader inflammatory cell infiltration, and more serious epithelial injury. Higher levels of PAF and lower levels of interleukin (IL)10 were identified in KO mice 2 days after DSS treatment. A greater and progressive increase of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was identified. The change was associated with increased autotaxin expression in both small intestine and colon, which was identified by immunohistochemistry study, Western blot, and sandwich ELISA. The upregulation of autotaxin coincided with an early increase of PAF. IL6 and TNFα were increased in both WT and KO mice. At the later stage (day 8), significant decreases in IL6, IL10, and PAF were identified, and the decreases were greater in KO mice. In conclusion, deficiency of Alk-SMase enhances DSS-induced colitis by mechanisms related to increased autotaxin expression and LPA formation. The early increase of PAF might be a trigger for such reactions.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2275
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-7262
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Purpose: BRAF inhibitors are clinically active in patients with advanced BRAF V600 -mutant melanoma, although acquired resistance remains common. Preclinical studies demonstrated that resistance could be overcome using concurrent treatment with the HSP90 inhibitor XL888. Patients and Methods: Vemurafenib (960 mg p.o. b.i.d.) combined with escalating doses of XL888 (30, 45, 90, or 135 mg p.o. twice weekly) was investigated in 21 patients with advanced BRAF V600 -mutant melanoma. Primary endpoints were safety and determination of a maximum tolerated dose. Correlative proteomic studies were performed to confirm HSP inhibitor activity. Results: Objective responses were observed in 15 of 20 evaluable patients [75%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 51%–91%], with 3 complete and 12 partial responses. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 9.2 months (95% CI, 3.8–not reached) and 34.6 months (6.2–not reached), respectively. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were skin toxicities, such as rash ( n = 4, 19%) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas ( n = 3, 14%), along with diarrhea ( n = 3, 14%). Pharmacodynamic analysis of patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed increased day 8 HSP70 expression compared with baseline in the three cohorts with XL888 doses ≥45 mg. Diverse effects of vemurafenib-XL888 upon intratumoral HSP client protein expression were noted, with the expression of multiple proteins (including ERBB3 and BAD) modulated on therapy. Conclusions: XL888 in combination with vemurafenib has clinical activity in patients with advanced BRAF V600 -mutant melanoma, with a tolerable side-effect profile. HSP90 inhibitors warrant further evaluation in combination with current standard-of-care BRAF plus MEK inhibitors in BRAF V600 -mutant melanoma. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5516–24. ©2018 AACR . See related commentary by Sullivan, p. 5496
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-15
    Description: Purpose: Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important suppressive cells among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Treg cells express the well-known immune checkpoint receptor PD-1, which is reported to mark "exhausted" Treg with lower suppressive function. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (Tim)-3, a negative regulator of Th1 immunity, is expressed by a sizeable fraction of TIL Tregs, but the functional status of Tim-3 + Tregs remains unclear. Experimental Design: CD4 + CTLA-4 + CD25 high Treg cells were sorted from freshly excised head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) TIL based on Tim-3 expression. Functional and phenotypic features of these Tim-3 + and Tim-3 – TIL Tregs were tested by in vitr o suppression assays and multi-color flow cytometry. Gene-expression profiling and NanoString analysis of Tim-3 + TIL Treg were performed. A murine HNSCC tumor model was used to test the effect of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy on Tim-3 + Treg. Results: Despite high PD-1 expression, Tim-3 + TIL Treg displayed a greater capacity to inhibit naïve T-cell proliferation than Tim-3 – Treg. Tim-3 + Treg from human HNSCC TIL also displayed an effector-like phenotype, with more robust expression of CTLA-4, PD-1, CD39, and IFN- receptor. Exogenous IFN- treatment could partially reverse the suppressive function of Tim-3 + TIL Treg. Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy downregulated Tim-3 expression on Tregs isolated from murine HNSCC tumors, and this treatment reversed the suppressive function of HNSCC TIL Tregs. Conclusions: Tim-3 + Treg are functionally and phenotypically distinct in HNSCC TIL, and are highly effective at inhibiting T-cell proliferation despite high PD-1 expression. IFN- induced by anti–PD-1 immunotherapy may be beneficial by reversing Tim-3 + Treg suppression. Clin Cancer Res; 24(18); 4529–38. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: BRCA1 is an established breast and ovarian tumor suppressor gene that encodes multiple protein products whose individual contributions to human cancer suppression are poorly understood. BRCA1-IRIS (also known as “IRIS”), an alternatively spliced BRCA1 product and a chromatin-bound replication and transcription regulator, is overexpressed in various primary human cancers, including...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-08
    Description: The central amygdala (CeA) plays a critical role in the expression of emotional behaviors, including pathologic anxiety disorders. The present study demonstrated that GABAergic inhibition in CeA was significantly increased by methyleugenol (ME), a natural constituent isolated from the essential oils of several plants. The electrophysiologic recordings showed that ME increased both tonic and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic GABAergic currents in CeA slices, especially the tonic currents, while the miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents were not affected. In the fear-induced anxiety animal model, both intraperitoneal injection or CeA-specific infusion of ME reduced the anxiety-like behaviors in mice, likely by facilitating the activation of A-type GABA receptors (GABA A Rs). These results reveal that GABA A R in the CeA can be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of anxiety and that ME is capable of enhancing the GABAergic inhibition in CeA neurons for the inhibition of neuronal excitability.
    Print ISSN: 0022-3565
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0103
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Background Socioeconomic status (SES) has long been conjectured to be associated with the incidence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but few studies have examined this quantitatively. This meta-analysis aims to fill this gap. Methods A systematic literature review was performed using Medline and EMBASE to identify observational studies on associations between SES and incidence and progression of CKD, published between 1974 and March 2017. Individual results were meta-analysed using a random effects model, in line with Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Results In total, 43 articles met our inclusion criteria. CKD prevalence was associated with several indicators of SES, particularly lower income (OR 1.34, 95% CI (1.18 to 1.53), P〈0.001; I 2 =73.0%, P=0.05); lower education (OR 1.21, 95% CI (1.11 to 1.32), P〈0.001; I 2 =45.20%, P=0.034); and lower combined SES (OR 2.18, 95% CI (1.64 to 2.89), P〈0.001; I 2 =0.0%, P=0.326). Lower levels of income, occupation and combined SES were also significantly associated with progression to end-stage renal disease (risk ratio (RR) 1.24, 95% CI (1.12 to 1.37), P〈0.001; I 2 =66.6%, P=0.006; RR 1.05, 95% CI (1.01 to 1.09), P=0.012; I 2 =0.0%, P=0.796; and RR 1.39, 95% CI (1.09 to 1.79), P=0.009; I 2 =74.2%, P=0.009). Subgroup analyses generally confirmed these results, except in a few cases, such as an inverse association related to particular socioeconomic backgrounds and where results were adjusted by more disease-related risk factors. Conclusion Lower income was most closely associated with prevalence and progression of CKD, and lower education was significantly associated with its prevalence. Evidence for other indicators was inconclusive.
    Keywords: Editor's choice
    Print ISSN: 0143-005X
    Electronic ISSN: 1470-2738
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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