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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-18
    Description: ORF9p (homologous to herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1] VP22) is a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) tegument protein essential for viral replication. Even though its precise functions are far from being fully described, a role in the secondary envelopment of the virus has long been suggested. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify cellular proteins interacting with ORF9p that might be important for this function. We found 31 ORF9p interaction partners, among which was AP1M1, the μ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1). AP-1 is a heterotetramer involved in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport and regulates the shuttling of cargo proteins between endosomes and the trans -Golgi network via clathrin-coated vesicles. We confirmed that AP-1 interacts with ORF9p in infected cells and mapped potential interaction motifs within ORF9p. We generated VZV mutants in which each of these motifs was individually impaired and identified leucine 231 in ORF9p to be critical for the interaction with AP-1. Disrupting ORF9p binding to AP-1 by mutating leucine 231 to alanine in ORF9p strongly impaired viral growth, most likely by preventing efficient secondary envelopment of the virus. Leucine 231 is part of a dileucine motif conserved among alphaherpesviruses, and we showed that VP22 of Marek's disease virus and HSV-2 also interacts with AP-1. This indicates that the function of this interaction in secondary envelopment might be conserved as well. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses are responsible for infections that, especially in immunocompromised patients, can lead to severe complications, including neurological symptoms and strokes. The constant emergence of viral strains resistant to classical antivirals (mainly acyclovir and its derivatives) pleads for the identification of new targets for future antiviral treatments. Cellular adaptor protein (AP) complexes have been implicated in the correct addressing of herpesvirus glycoproteins in infected cells, and the discovery that a major constituent of the varicella-zoster virus tegument interacts with AP-1 reveals a previously unsuspected role of this tegument protein. Unraveling the complex mechanisms leading to virion production will certainly be an important step in the discovery of future therapeutic targets.
    Print ISSN: 0022-538X
    Electronic ISSN: 1098-5514
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: Objective Ciclosporin and infliximab have demonstrated short-term similar efficacy as second-line therapies in patients with acute severe UC (ASUC) refractory to intravenous steroids. The aim of this study was to assess long-term outcome of patients included in a randomised trial comparing ciclosporin and infliximab. Design Between 2007 and 2010, 115 patients with steroid-refractory ASUC were randomised in 29 European centres to receive ciclosporin or infliximab in association with azathioprine. Patients were followed until death or last news up to January 2015. Colectomy-free survival rates at 1 and 5 years and changes in therapy were estimated through Kaplan-Meier method and compared between initial treatment groups through log-rank test. Results After a median follow-up of 5.4 years, colectomy-free survival rates (95% CI) at 1 and 5 years were, respectively, 70.9% (59.2% to 82.6%) and 61.5% (48.7% to 74.2%) in patients who received ciclosporin and 69.1% (56.9% to 81.3%) and 65.1% (52.4% to 77.8%) in those who received infliximab (p=0.97). Cumulative incidence of first infliximab use at 1 and 5 years in patients initially treated with ciclosporin was, respectively, 45.7% (32.6% to 57.9%) and 57.1% (43.0% to 69.0%). Only four patients from the infliximab group were subsequently switched to ciclosporin. Three patients died during the follow-up, none directly related to UC or its treatment. Conclusions In this cohort of patients with steroid-refractory ASUC initially treated by ciclosporin or infliximab, long-term colectomy-free survival was independent from initial treatment. These long-term results further confirm a similar efficacy and good safety profiles of both drugs and do not favour one drug over the other. Trial registration number EudraCT: 2006-005299-42; ClinicalTrials.gouv number: NCT00542152; post-results.
    Print ISSN: 0017-5749
    Electronic ISSN: 1468-3288
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-02
    Description: α-Chlorofatty aldehydes (α-ClFALDs) and α-bromofatty aldehydes (α-BrFALDs) are produced in activated neutrophils and eosinophils. This study investigated the ability of α-BrFALD and α-ClFALD to react with the thiols of GSH and protein cysteinyl residues. Initial studies showed that 2-bromohexadecanal (2-BrHDA) and 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA) react with GSH producing the same fatty aldehyde-GSH adduct (FALD-GSH). In both synthetic and cellular reactions, FALD-GSH production was more robust with 2-BrHDA compared with 2-ClHDA as precursor. NaBr-supplemented phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-activated neutrophils formed more α-BrFALD and FALD-GSH compared with non-NaBr-supplemented neutrophils. Primary human eosinophils, which preferentially produce hypobromous acid and α-BrFALD, accumulated FALD-GSH following PMA stimulation. Mice exposed to Br 2 gas had increased levels of both α-BrFALD and FALD-GSH in the lungs, as well as elevated systemic plasma levels of FALD-GSH in comparison to mice exposed to air. Similar relative reactivity of α-ClFALD and α-BrFALD with protein thiols was shown using click analogs of these aldehydes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that GSH and protein adduct formation are much greater as a result of nucleophilic attack of cysteinyl residues on α-BrFALD compared with α-ClFALD, which was observed in both primary leukocytes and in mice exposed to bromine gas.
    Print ISSN: 0022-2275
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-7262
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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