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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) caused by a recently identified bunyavirus, SFTSV, is an emerging infectious disease with extensive geographical distribution and high mortality. Progressive viral replication and severe thrombocytopenia are key features of SFTSV infection and fatal outcome, whereas the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We revealed arginine deficiency in SFTS cases by performing metabolomics analysis on two independent patient cohorts, suggesting that arginine metabolism by nitric oxide synthase and arginase is a key pathway in SFTSV infection and consequential death. Arginine deficiency was associated with decreased intraplatelet nitric oxide (Plt-NO) concentration, platelet activation, and thrombocytopenia. An expansion of arginase-expressing granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells was observed, which was related to T cell CD3- chain down-regulation and virus clearance disturbance, implicating a role of arginase activity and arginine depletion in the impaired anti-SFTSV T cell function. Moreover, a comprehensive measurement of arginine bioavailability, global arginine bioavailability ratio, was shown to be a good prognostic marker for fatal prediction in early infection. A randomized controlled trial demonstrated that arginine administration was correlated with enhanced Plt-NO concentration, suppressed platelet activation, and elevated CD3- chain expression and eventually associated with an accelerated virus clearance and thrombocytopenia recovery. Together, our findings revealed the arginine catabolism pathway–associated regulation of platelet homeostasis and T cell dysregulation after SFTSV infection, which not only provided a functional mechanism underlying SFTS pathogenesis but also offered an alternative therapy choice for SFTS.
    Print ISSN: 1946-6234
    Electronic ISSN: 1946-6242
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Gradient structures exist ubiquitously in nature and are increasingly being introduced in engineering. However, understanding structural gradient–related mechanical behaviors in all gradient structures, including those in engineering materials, has been challenging. We explored the mechanical performance of a gradient nanotwinned structure with highly tunable structural gradients in pure copper. A large structural gradient allows for superior work hardening and strength that can exceed those of the strongest component of the gradient structure. We found through systematic experiments and atomistic simulations that this unusual behavior is afforded by a unique patterning of ultrahigh densities of dislocations in the grain interiors. These observations not only shed light on gradient structures, but may also indicate a promising route for improving the mechanical properties of materials through gradient design.
    Keywords: Materials Science, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Introduction Provisional stenting (PS) for simple coronary bifurcation lesions is the mainstay of treatment. A systematic two-stent approach is widely used for complex bifurcation lesions (CBLs). However, a randomised comparison of PS and two-stent techniques for CBLs has never been studied. Accordingly, the present study is designed to elucidate the benefits of two-stent treatment over PS in patients with CBLs. Methods and analysis This DEFINITION II study is a prospective, multinational, randomised, endpoint-driven trial to compare the benefits of the two-stent technique with PS for CBLs. A total of 660 patients with CBLs will be randomised in a 1:1 fashion to receive either PS or the two-stent technique. The primary endpoint is the rate of 12-month target lesion failure defined as the composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (MI) and clinically driven target lesion revascularisation. The major secondary endpoints include all causes of death, MI, target vessel revascularisation, in-stent restenosis, stroke and each individual component of the primary endpoints. The safety endpoint is the occurrence of definite or probable stent thrombosis. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol and informed consent have been approved by the Institutional Review Board of Nanjing First Hospital, and accepted by each participating centre. Written informed consent was obtained from all enrolled patients. Findings of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated at conferences. Trial registration number NCT02284750 ; Pre-results.
    Keywords: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: Cutaneous neurofibromas in the genomics era: current understanding and open questions Cutaneous neurofibromas in the genomics era: current understanding and open questions, Published online: 26 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41416-018-0073-2 Cutaneous neurofibromas in the genomics era: current understanding and open questions
    Print ISSN: 0007-0920
    Electronic ISSN: 1532-1827
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: The genetic etiology of many complex diseases is highly heterogeneous. A complex disease can be caused by multiple mutations within the same gene or mutations in multiple genes at various genomic loci. Although these disease-susceptibility mutations can be collectively common in the population, they are often individually rare or even private to certain families. Family-based studies are powerful for detecting rare variants enriched in families, which is an important feature for sequencing studies due to the heterogeneous nature of rare variants. In addition, family designs can provide robust protection against population stratification. Nevertheless, statistical methods for analyzing family-based sequencing data are underdeveloped, especially those accounting for heterogeneous etiology of complex diseases. In this article, we introduce a random field framework for detecting gene-phenotype associations in family-based sequencing studies, referred to as family-based genetic random field (FGRF). Similar to existing family-based association tests, FGRF could utilize within-family and between-family information separately or jointly to test an association. We demonstrate that FGRF has comparable statistical power with existing methods when there is no genetic heterogeneity, but can improve statistical power when there is genetic heterogeneity across families. The proposed method also shares the same advantages with the conventional family-based association tests ( e.g. , being robust to population stratification). Finally, we applied the proposed method to a sequencing data from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, and revealed several genes, including SAMD14 , potentially associated with alcohol dependence.
    Print ISSN: 0016-6731
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860026/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Martinez, Jennifer -- Cunha, Larissa D -- Park, Sunmin -- Yang, Mao -- Lu, Qun -- Orchard, Robert -- Li, Quan-Zhen -- Yan, Mei -- Janke, Laura -- Guy, Cliff -- Linkermann, Andreas -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Green, Douglas R -- 1ZIAES10328601/PHS HHS/ -- R01 AI040646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI40646/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109725/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):115-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17950. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel 24105, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096368" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism ; Autoantibodies/blood ; *Autophagy/genetics ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/blood ; Inflammation/blood/genetics/*pathology ; Interleukin-10/biosynthesis ; Kidney/metabolism/pathology ; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood/genetics/*immunology/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Phagocytes/cytology/physiology ; Phagosomes/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-04-07
    Description: Electrically controllable magnetism, which requires the field-effect manipulation of both charge and spin degrees of freedom, has attracted growing interest since the emergence of spintronics. We report the reversible electrical switching of ferromagnetic (FM) states in platinum (Pt) thin films by introducing paramagnetic ionic liquid (PIL) as the gating media. The paramagnetic ionic gating controls the movement of ions with magnetic moments, which induces itinerant ferromagnetism on the surface of Pt films, with large coercivity and perpendicular anisotropy mimicking the ideal two-dimensional Ising-type FM state. The electrical transport of the induced FM state shows Kondo effect at low temperature, suggesting spatially separated coexistence of Kondo scattering beneath the FM interface. The tunable FM state indicates that paramagnetic ionic gating could serve as a versatile method to induce rich transport phenomena combining field effect and magnetism at PIL-gated interfaces.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: Purpose: Agents extracted from natural sources with antitumor property have attracted considerable attention from researchers and clinicians because of their safety, efficacy, and immediate availability. Degalactotigonin (DGT), extracted from Solanum nigrum L ., has anticancer properties without serious side effects. Here, we explored whether DGT can inhibit the growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. Experimental Design: MTT, colony formation, and apoptosis assays were performed to analyze the effects of DGT on osteosarcoma cell viability in vitro . The migration and invasion abilities were measured using a Transwell assay. Animal models were used to assess the roles of DGT in both tumor growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. Gli1 expression and function were measured in osteosarcoma cells and clinical samples. After DGT treatment, Gli1 activation and the phosphorylation status of multiple cellular kinases were measured with a luciferase reporter and phospho-kinase antibody array. Results: DGT inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed migration and invasion in osteosarcoma cells. DGT, injected intraperitoneally after tumor inoculation, significantly decreased the volume of osteosarcoma xenografts and dramatically diminished the occurrence of osteosarcoma xenograft metastasis to the lungs. Mechanistically, DGT inhibited osteosarcoma growth and metastasis through repression of the Hedgehog/Gli1 pathway, which maintains malignant phenotypes and is involved in the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. DGT decreased the activity of multiple intracellular kinases that affect the survival of osteosarcoma patients, including GSK3β. In addition, DGT represses the Hedgehog/Gli1 pathway mainly through GSK3β inactivation. Conclusions: Our studies provide evidence that DGT can suppress the growth and metastasis of human osteosarcoma through modulation of GSK3β inactivation–mediated repression of the Hedgehog/Gli1 pathway. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 130–44. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Background/Aim: Glioblastoma is a recalcitrant and poorly understood disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of moesin up-regulation on tumor progression in an orthotopic nude-mouse model of human glioblastoma. Materials and Methods: U87-GFP glioblastoma cells, transfected with either U87-H4645 (moesin up-regulated) or U87-H149 (vector control) were orthotopically implanted into the brains of nude mice. Moesin expression in the tumors was analyzed with RT-PCR and western blotting. Real-time fluorescence imaging was used to longitudinally and non-invasively quantitate tumor growth. The expression of cancer-related genes β-catenin, CD44, MMP-2, ICAM-1, and PCNA in the tumor was analyzed by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry in both sublines. Results: The expression levels of moesin mRNA and protein were significantly increased in the glioblastoma derived from transfected U87-H4645 cells compared to the vector control and untransfected cells. Tumor growth rate and final tumor weight were significantly increased in the animals with the glioblastoma derived from transfected U87-H4645 cells, compared to untransfected and vector control (p〈0.01). mRNA expression of β-catenin, CD44, ICAM-1, and MMP-2 in the glioblastoma derived from the transfected U87-H4645 tumors was significantly increased compared with tumors derived from untransfected and vector-control U87 cells (p〈0.01). Furthermore, a similar increase in the expression of these proteins was observed by western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Up-regulation of moesin expression in glioblastoma cells resulted in more aggressive orthotopic glioblastoma growth in nude mice. This effect may be mediated by the regulation of several proliferation-, adhesion-, and invasion-related cancer genes, which may serve as future therapeutic targets for this recalcitrant disease.
    Print ISSN: 0250-7005
    Electronic ISSN: 1791-7530
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-12
    Description: Programmed cell death protein–1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand–1 (PD-L1) checkpoint blockade immunotherapy elicits durable antitumor effects in multiple cancers, yet not all patients respond. We report the evaluation of 〉300 patient samples across 22 tumor types from four KEYNOTE clinical trials. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) and a T cell–inflamed gene expression profile (GEP) exhibited joint predictive utility in identifying responders and nonresponders to the PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab. TMB and GEP were independently predictive of response and demonstrated low correlation, suggesting that they capture distinct features of neoantigenicity and T cell activation. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database showed TMB and GEP to have a low correlation, and analysis by joint stratification revealed biomarker-defined patterns of targetable-resistance biology. These biomarkers may have utility in clinical trial design by guiding rational selection of anti–PD-1 monotherapy and combination immunotherapy regimens.
    Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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