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  • 2015-2019  (2)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-20
    Description: Age-related thymic involution is characterized by a decrease in thymic epithelial cell (TEC) number and function parallel to a disruption in their spatial organization, resulting in defective thymocyte development and proliferation as well as peripheral T cell dysfunction. Deficiency of Klotho , an antiaging gene and modifier of fibroblast growth factor signaling, causes premature aging. To investigate the role of Klotho in accelerated age-dependent thymic involution, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of thymopoiesis and peripheral T cell homeostasis using Klotho -deficient ( Kl/Kl ) mice. At 8 wk of age, Kl/Kl mice displayed a severe reduction in the number of thymocytes (10–100-fold reduction), especially CD4 and CD8 double-positive cells, and a reduction of both cortical and medullary TECs. To address a cell-autonomous role for Klotho in TEC biology, we implanted neonatal thymi from Klotho -deficient and -sufficient mice into athymic hosts. Kl/Kl thymus grafts supported thymopoiesis equivalently to Klotho -sufficient thymus transplants, indicating that Klotho is not intrinsically essential for TEC support of thymopoiesis. Moreover, lethally irradiated hosts given Kl/Kl or wild-type bone marrow had normal thymocyte development and comparably reconstituted T cells, indicating that Klotho is not inherently essential for peripheral T cell reconstitution. Because Kl/Kl mice have higher levels of serum phosphorus, calcium, and vitamin D, we evaluated thymus function in Kl/Kl mice fed with a vitamin D–deprived diet. We observed that a vitamin D–deprived diet abrogated thymic involution and T cell lymphopenia in 8-wk-old Kl/Kl mice. Taken together, our data suggest that Klotho deficiency causes thymic involution via systemic effects that include high active vitamin D levels.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1767
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-6606
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-13
    Description: Improved diagnostic and treatment methods are needed for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), the leading cause of late nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in long-term survivors of allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Validated biomarkers that facilitate disease diagnosis and classification generally are lacking in cGVHD. Here, we conducted whole serum proteomics analysis of a well-established murine multiorgan system cGVHD model. We discovered 4 upregulated proteins during cGVHD that are targetable by genetic ablation or blocking antibodies, including the RAS and JUN kinase activator, CRKL, and CXCL7, CCL8, and CCL9 chemokines. Donor T cells lacking CRK/CRKL prevented the generation of cGVHD, germinal center reactions, and macrophage infiltration seen with wild-type T cells. Whereas antibody blockade of CCL8 or CXCL7 was ineffective in treating cGVHD, CCL9 blockade reversed cGVHD clinical manifestations, histopathological changes, and immunopathological hallmarks. Mechanistically, elevated CCL9 expression was present predominantly in vascular smooth muscle cells and uniquely seen in cGVHD mice. Plasma concentrations of CCL15, the human homolog of mouse CCL9, were elevated in a previously published cohort of 211 cGVHD patients compared with controls and associated with NRM. In a cohort of 792 patients, CCL15 measured at day +100 could not predict cGVHD occurring within the next 3 months with clinically relevant sensitivity/specificity. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the utility of preclinical proteomics screening to identify potential new targets for cGVHD and specifically CCL15 as a diagnosis marker for cGVHD. These data warrant prospective biomarker validation studies.
    Keywords: Transplantation
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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