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    Publication Date: 2015-02-18
    Description: Enhancers regulate spatiotemporal gene expression and impart cell-specific transcriptional outputs that drive cell identity. Super-enhancers (SEs), also known as stretch-enhancers, are a subset of enhancers especially important for genes associated with cell identity and genetic risk of disease. CD4(+) T cells are critical for host defence and autoimmunity. Here we analysed maps of mouse T-cell SEs as a non-biased means of identifying key regulatory nodes involved in cell specification. We found that cytokines and cytokine receptors were the dominant class of genes exhibiting SE architecture in T cells. Nonetheless, the locus encoding Bach2, a key negative regulator of effector differentiation, emerged as the most prominent T-cell SE, revealing a network in which SE-associated genes critical for T-cell biology are repressed by BACH2. Disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms for immune-mediated disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, were highly enriched for T-cell SEs versus typical enhancers or SEs in other cell lineages. Intriguingly, treatment of T cells with the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib disproportionately altered the expression of rheumatoid arthritis risk genes with SE structures. Together, these results indicate that genes with SE architecture in T cells encompass a variety of cytokines and cytokine receptors but are controlled by a 'guardian' transcription factor, itself endowed with an SE. Thus, enumeration of SEs allows the unbiased determination of key regulatory nodes in T cells, which are preferentially modulated by pharmacological intervention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409450/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409450/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vahedi, Golnaz -- Kanno, Yuka -- Furumoto, Yasuko -- Jiang, Kan -- Parker, Stephen C J -- Erdos, Michael R -- Davis, Sean R -- Roychoudhuri, Rahul -- Restifo, Nicholas P -- Gadina, Massimo -- Tang, Zhonghui -- Ruan, Yijun -- Collins, Francis S -- Sartorelli, Vittorio -- O'Shea, John J -- 105663/Z/14/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 CA186714/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AR041159-07/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 23;520(7548):558-62. doi: 10.1038/nature14154. Epub 2015 Feb 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lymphocyte Cell Biology Section, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Translational Immunology Section, NIAMS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine and Department of Genetic and Development Biology, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; Laboratory of Muscle Stem Cells and Gene Regulation, NIAMS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25686607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*genetics/immunology/pathology ; Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Cell Differentiation/genetics ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Janus Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Piperidines/pharmacology ; Pyrimidines/pharmacology ; Pyrroles/pharmacology ; RNA, Untranslated/genetics ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology/*metabolism/*pathology ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; p300-CBP Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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