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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-09-29
    Description: BD1-5, OP11, and OD1 bacteria have been widely detected in anaerobic environments, but their metabolisms remain unclear owing to lack of cultivated representatives and minimal genomic sampling. We uncovered metabolic characteristics for members of these phyla, and a new lineage, PER, via cultivation-independent recovery of 49 partial to near-complete genomes from an acetate-amended aquifer. All organisms were nonrespiring anaerobes predicted to ferment. Three augment fermentation with archaeal-like hybrid type II/III ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RuBisCO) that couples adenosine monophosphate salvage with CO(2) fixation, a pathway not previously described in Bacteria. Members of OD1 reduce sulfur and may pump protons using archaeal-type hydrogenases. For six organisms, the UGA stop codon is translated as tryptophan. All bacteria studied here may play previously unrecognized roles in hydrogen production, sulfur cycling, and fermentation of refractory sedimentary carbon.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wrighton, Kelly C -- Thomas, Brian C -- Sharon, Itai -- Miller, Christopher S -- Castelle, Cindy J -- VerBerkmoes, Nathan C -- Wilkins, Michael J -- Hettich, Robert L -- Lipton, Mary S -- Williams, Kenneth H -- Long, Philip E -- Banfield, Jillian F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Sep 28;337(6102):1661-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23019650" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Archaeal Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Bacteria, Anaerobic/*classification/*enzymology/genetics ; Codon, Terminator/genetics ; DNA, Bacterial ; Fermentation ; Genome, Bacterial ; Hydrogen/*metabolism ; Hydrogenase/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Phylogeny ; Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Sulfur/*metabolism ; Tryptophan/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-11-26
    Description: Several states and countries have adopted targets for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but there has been little physically realistic modeling of the energy and economic transformations required. We analyzed the infrastructure and technology path required to meet California's goal of an 80% reduction below 1990 levels, using detailed modeling of infrastructure stocks, resource constraints, and electricity system operability. We found that technically feasible levels of energy efficiency and decarbonized energy supply alone are not sufficient; widespread electrification of transportation and other sectors is required. Decarbonized electricity would become the dominant form of energy supply, posing challenges and opportunities for economic growth and climate policy. This transformation demands technologies that are not yet commercialized, as well as coordination of investment, technology development, and infrastructure deployment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Williams, James H -- DeBenedictis, Andrew -- Ghanadan, Rebecca -- Mahone, Amber -- Moore, Jack -- Morrow, William R 3rd -- Price, Snuller -- Torn, Margaret S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jan 6;335(6064):53-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1208365. Epub 2011 Nov 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Energy and Environmental Economics, 101 Montgomery Street, Suite 1600, San Francisco, CA 94104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22116030" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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