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  • 2005-2009  (1)
  • 1985-1989  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN), often combined with phenoxyethanol (PE) (e.g., Euxyl K 400®), increased throughout the 1990s in Europe. Consequently, in 2003, the European Commission banned its use in leave-on products, where its use concentration was considered too high and the non-sensitizing use concentration as yet unknown. The 2 objectives of the study are (a) to find a maximum non-eliciting concentration in a leave-on product in MDBGN/PE-sensitized patients, which could possibly also be considered safe regarding induction and (b) to find the best patch test concentration for MDBGN. We, therefore, performed a use-related test (ROAT) in patients sensitized to MDBGN/PE (n = 39) with 3 concentrations of MDBGN/PE (50, 100 and 250 p.p.m. MDBGN, respectively). A subset of these patients (n = 24) was later patch-tested with various concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5% MDBGN, respectively). 15 patients (38%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 23–55%) had a negative and 24 (62%; 95% CI = 45–77%) a positive overall repeated open application test (ROAT) result. 13 reacted to the lowest (50 p.p.m.), 8 to the middle (100 p.p.m.) and 3 to the highest concentration (250 p.p.m.) only. In those 13 reacting to the lowest ROAT concentration, dermatitis developed within a few days (1–7). The strength of the initial and the confirmatory patch test result, respectively, and the outcome of the ROAT were positively associated. Of the 24 patients with a use and confirmatory patch test, 15 reacted to 0.1% MDBGN, 16 to 0.2%, 17 to 0.3% and 22 to 0.5%. With the patch test concentration of 0.5%, the number of ROAT-negative patients but patch-test-positive patients increases considerably, particularly due to + reactions. A maximum sensitivity of 94% (95% CI = 70–100%) is reached with a patch test concentration of 0.2%, and is not further improved by increasing the concentration. However, the specificity decreases dramatically from 88 (95% CI = 47–100%) with 0.2% to a mere 12.5% (95% CI = 0–53%) with 0.5%. It can be concluded (a) that for MDBGN 0.2% is very likely the best patch test concentration and (b) that 50 p.p.m. in a leave-on product can elicit contact dermatitis in sensitized persons. We were, therefore, unable to find a safe, still microbicidal, concentration for leave-on products. By contrast, with other contact allergens, dose–response use tests may be able to identify a non-eliciting concentration, which could give valuable clues to a non-inducing (i.e., safe) concentration in products.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Motor nerve ; [3H]Acetylcholine release ; Nicotinic autofacilitation ; Fading
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of (+)-tubocurarine (TC) on the release of [3H]acetylcholine from the rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preincubated with [3H]choline was investigated at different stimulation frequencies and train lengths. At 0.5 Hz (100 pulses) TC failed to modulate the evoked acetylcholine release. A slight (30%) inhibition was observed at 1 Hz (100 pulses). Release of acetylcholine evoked at 5, 25 and 50 Hz (100 pulses) or 100 Hz (200 pulses) was markedly reduced by TC. The degree of inhibition (60%) was similar between 5 Hz and 100 Hz. A concentration of 1 μmol/l TC was a maximal effective concentration at 5 Hz whilst at all higher stimulation frequencies a 10-fold higher concentration was necessary for the maximal effect. When 300 pulses were continuously applied at 5 Hz or 50 Hz TC caused only a slight inhibition (20%). Additionally, the phrenic nerve was stimulated intermittently. Trains of 15 pulses were repeated 10 times with an interval of 3 s between each train. Under this latter stimulation condition TC failed to reduce acetylcholine release. It is concluded that nicotinic autofacilitation of acetylcholine release from the motor nerve operates at frequencies and stimulation conditions similar to the pattern of nerve activity under in vivo conditions. At least more than 15 pulses are required before the nicotinic autofacilitation becomes apparent. It appears unlikely that the TC induced fading of end-organ responses can only be attributed to a blockade of the presynaptic nicotine receptors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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