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  • 1
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Background:  Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is the most common urological disease in adult men. Antibiotic therapy is the gold standard of treatment. However, long-term therapy resulted in many side-effects and bacterial resistance. Because of these reasons, we need new treatment modality that could replace traditional antibiotic therapy. Catechin, an extract of green tea, has antimicrobial effect against various bacteria and synergy effect to antibiotics. We evaluate the synergistic effects of catechin on the treatment of CBP in an animal model.Methods:  An experimental CBP model was induced in 70 male Wistar rats by instillation of 0.2 mL bacterial suspension (E-coli Z17, O2:K1:H-) containing 1 × 108 CFU/mL into the prostatic urethra. Microbiologically and histologically proven CBP model was demonstrated in 58.6% (41 of 70) of the rats after 4 weeks of bacterial instillation. The 41 rats demonstrating CBP were randomly divided into four groups; the control, catechin, ciprofloxacin and catechin with ciprofloxacin groups. All drug treatments were conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After treatment, the results were analyzed with microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate and urine samples to compare each group.Results:  Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate and urine samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in all three experimental groups compared with the control group. The catechin group showed coherent trends of decrease in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group, but not to a statistically significant degree (P 〉 0.05). However, the ciprofloxacin and catechin with ciprofloxacin groups showed statistically significant decreases in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group (P 〈 0.05). The catechin with ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvements in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group (P 〈 0.05).Conclusions:  These results suggest that catechin may be an effective material in CBP treatment. Particularly, combination treatment of catechin and ciprofloxacin has synergistic effect. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of catechin and ciprofloxacin may be effective in treating CBP with a higher success rate.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aim:  Body weight (BW) might be related to total body water, and the difference between a patient's actual BW and ideal BW (IBW) might be the volume marker. However, there has been no information about the association between IBW and dry weight (DW) in haemodialysis (HD) patients.Methods:  First, we analysed the relationship between DW and IBW in 51 HD patients. The IBW was calculated by 21 × Height (Ht)2. Weight status was analysed by the WHO classification. Second, in 12 436 controls, linear equations using Ht2 were sought to predict the BW in each sex and WHO class. Third, using these equations, predicted BW (PW) was compared with DW in each WHO class at the initiation and after 1 year in 619 new HD patients, retrospectively.Results:  Among 51 HD patients, 38 were normal weight in whom there was no difference between DW and IBW. In each sex and WHO class of the 12 436 controls, linear equations using Ht2 were developed to predict BW. These equations were applied to 619 new HD patients. In males, there were no differences between PW and DW in underweight (UW), overweight (OW), obese (OB) and extremely obese (EOB) patients at the initiation of the HD. In females, there were no differences between PW and DW in OW patients. Despite no statistical differences, there were wide ranges of distribution from −6 to 6 kg between PW and DW.Conclusions:  BW had a linear relationship with Ht2 and might be predictable by the WHO class-specific equation using Ht2. These equations might be useful as a crude indicator of DW in HD patients.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. There is evidence that the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and peroxynitrite by ischaemia/reperfusion may lead to renal cell injury. Herein, we investigated whether Sheng mai san (SMS), a Chinese herbal medicine, protects against renal ischaemic injury during heat stroke by reducing iNOS-dependent nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite formation.2. Urethane-anaesthetized rats were exposed to heat stress (ambient temperature 43°C) to induce heat stroke. Control rats were exposed to 24°C. Mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow after the onset of heat stroke were significantly lower in heat stroke rats than in control rats. However, both colonic temperature and renal damage score were greater in heat stroke rats compared with control rats. Similarly, plasma NO, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), as well as the renal immunoreactivity of iNOS and peroxynitrite, were significantly higher in heat stroke rats compared with their normothermic controls.3. Pretreatment with SMS (1.2 g/day per rat for 7 consecutive days before the initiation of heat stress) significantly attenuated the heat stroke-induced arterial hypotension, hyperthermia, renal ischaemia and damage, the increased renal immunoreactivity of iNOS and peroxynitrite and the increased plasma levels of NO, creatinine and BUN. Pretreatment with SMS resulted in a prolongation of survival time in heat stroke.4. The results of the present study suggest that SMS protects against renal ischaemic damage by reducing iNOS-dependent NO and peroxynitrite production during heat stroke.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY:  Hypertension, poor glycemic control and albuminuria are well known risk factors for diabetic nephropathy, but these factors do not explain all of the inter-individual variabilities in the rate of progression to kidney failure. Recent evidence showed that genetic predisposition affected the hyperglycemia-induced nephrotoxicity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). We reviewed the present state of knowledge concerning the relationship between genetics and diabetic nephropathy in type 2 DM. However, the results are inconclusive and the genetic determinants of diabetic nephropathy are not fully understood. In addition, genetic background of nephropathy in type 2 DM was thought to be more complex than in type 1 DM. Recent studies suggested that the inflammation would be an essential component of type 2 DM and its complications. We postulated that increased systemic and/or intrarenal inflammation in high glucose milieu is important in the pathogenesis of nephropathy in patients with type 2 DM. To investigate the impact of inflammation on diabetic nephropathy, we studied several polymorphisms in genes encoding inflammatory cytokine and chemokine in patients with type 2 DM. Among them, −511 C/T in interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tandem repeat in IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), −308 G/A in tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly associated with an increased risk of kidney failure. In addition, some of them were remarkably different from those previously reported in the NCBI or literature based on the western population.Our results suggest that inflammation could play a pathogenic role in diabetic nephropathy in type 2 DM. A better understanding of genetic factors predisposing to diabetic nephropathy would not only help to identify diabetic patients at risk, but also be helpful to unveil the pathogenesis of DN.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Melbourne, Australia : Blackwell Science Pty
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Renal artery pseudoaneurysm is uncommon complication after blunt trauma injury. We report here on a case of delayed bleeding from a renal artery pseudoaneurysm at 21 days after the injury. It was successfully treated by angioembolization despite the fact that the patient was hemodynamically unstable.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. In an attempt to develop new substances for handling insulin resistance, an aqueous extract of the root of Acanthopanax senticosus (Araliaceae) was used to screen the effect on insulin resistance induced by fructose-rich chow in rats.2. Insulin action on glucose disposal rate was measured using the glucose–insulin index, the product from areas under the curve of glucose and insulin during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In addition to the modification of feeding behaviour and a marked decrease in bodyweight, oral administration (three times daily for 3 days) of the aqueous extract of A. senticosus root to rats that had received fructose-rich chow for 4 weeks reversed the elevated value of the glucose–-insulin index, indicating that this herb has the ability to improve insulin sensitivity.3. Time for the loss of the plasma glucose-lowering response to tolbutamide (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in fructose-rich chow-fed rats was markedly delayed by repeated treatment with the aqueous extract of A. senticosus root compared with the vehicle (saline) -treated group. Thus, an improving effect of A. senticosus root on insulin resistance can be considered.4. An increase in insulin sensitivity following the administration of this herb was further identified using the plasma glucose-lowering action of exogenous insulin in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Oral administration of the aqueous extract of A. senticosus root at a dose of 150.0 mg/kg three times daily to STZ-diabetic rats increased the responses to exogenous insulin 10 days later.5. The results obtained suggest that oral administration of the aqueous extract from A. senticosus root has the ability to improve insulin sensitivity and delay the development of insulin resistance in rats and, thus, may be used as an adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Melbourne, Australia : Blackwell Science Pty
    Nephrology 10 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY:  Sirolimus (Rapamycin, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Australia Pty Ltd, Baulkham Hills, NSW, Australia) (SRL) has received increasing attention as an immunosuppressant in renal and other solid organ transplantation. Sirolimus is the first marketed agent in a new class of drugs with a novel mechanism of action. Sirolimus binds, like tacrolimus, to a member of the FK binding protein (FKBP) family. The SRL/FKBP complex binds to the protein kinase mTOR. Binding to mTOR blocks activation of signal transduction pathways causing arrest of the cell cycle in the G1 phase. It is now known that mTOR is a central regulator of cell growth and proliferation. The immunosuppressive properties of SRL are due primarily to blockade of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced proliferation of T cells. There is still much to be learnt about how best to use the drug. The key advantage over the current choice of immunosuppressive agents is the ability to preserve renal function and pathology while producing excellent rejection-free, graft survival rates. Thus, SRL may find its pivotal role as a calcineurin inhibitors replacement in patients whose grafts are affected by chronic allograft nephropathy. A second major driver for use may prove to be the impact of SRL on cancer incidence and prognosis. Studies still need to be performed to evaluate the best timing for commencement of SRL and the optimal dosage to minimize side-effects.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Ligusticum wallichii Franchat. It is well documented that TMP exerts a cardiovascular protective effect. The aims of the present study were to examine whether TMP alters angiotenisn (Ang) II-induced endothelin (ET)-1 gene expression and to identify the putative underlying signalling pathways in vascular endothelial cells.2. Cultured vascular endothelial cells were pre-incubated with TMP, stimulated with AngII and ET-1 gene expression was then examined. The effects of TMP pretreatment on AngII-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation were investigated to elucidate the intracellular mechanism responsible for the effects of TMP on ET-1 gene expression.3. Tetramethylpyrazine inhibited AngII-induced ET-1 gene expression, as revealed by nothern blotting and a promoter activity assay. Tetramethylpyrazine also inhibited the AngII-induced increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as measured by the redox sensitive fluorescent dye 2′ 7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and ERK phosphorylation.4. In summary, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that TMP inhibits AngII-induced ROS generation, ERK phosphorylation and ET-1 gene expression in vascular endothelial cells. Thus, the present study delivers important new insights into the molecular pathways that may contribute to the proposed beneficial effects of TMP in the cardiovascular system.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Melbourne, Australia : Blackwell Science Pty
    Nephrology 10 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY:  The ingestion of paraquat, a non-selective herbicide, can be fatal in humans. Paraquat is toxic to multiple organs, including the kidney, heart, gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. Although paraquat has been established as one cause of acute tubular necrosis, Fanconi syndrome presenting as severe hypophosphataemia after paraquat intoxication has not been reported. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old Korean woman who presented with generalized proximal tubular dysfunction including aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and glycosuria after paraquat intoxication. We found that severe hypophosphataemia induces deep drowsiness. Renal biopsy findings indicated the presence of acute tubular necrosis that may be reversible.
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