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  • 1
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the deposition of immunoglobulins or complements in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded renal biopsy tissues through the unmasking of antigens with microwave treatment plus protease digestion or trypsin digestion.Methods:  Biopsy samples from patients with IgA nephritis (n = 7), lupus nephritis (7), membranous nephropathy (7) and mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (3) were used. Antigen unmasking was performed with (i) microwave treatment plus protease digestion for 10, 30 or 60 min, or (ii) digestion with 0.25% trypsin for 60 or 120 min.Results:  Microwave treatment plus protease digestion for 30 or 60 min and trypsin digestion for 120 min provided good results for the unmasking of immunoglobulins in glomeruli with structural preservation. The IgA deposits in IgA nephritis and IgG deposits in lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy were clearly revealed in more than 80% of cases by both pretreatments. Microwave treatment plus protease digestion for 30 min revealed the deposition of C3 in all cases of mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis and lupus nephritis and was superior to trypsin digestion. Characteristic patterns of C3 deposition were observed for these forms of glomerulonephritis, although C3 deposits in membranous nephropathy were detected in only 50% of cases. It was not possible to unmask all of the antigens in the glomeruli, especially those with weak immunofluorescence.Conclusion:  Microwave treatment plus protease digestion is effective for the unmasking of antigens in paraffin sections and as useful for the diagnosis of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis as trypsin digestion.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Bradykinin may interfere with myocardial remodelling by promoting inflammation and mast cell activation or, alternatively, by counteracting angiotensin II-dependent collagen accumulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of bradykinin B2 receptor antagonism in inflammatory and mast cell infiltration, fibroplasia and fibrosis accumulation following myocardial infarction (MI).2. Myocardial infarction was produced by the ligature of the left coronary artery in male Wistar rats that were 10 weeks of age. Immediately after MI, rats received the B2 receptor antagonist Hoe140 (0.5 µg/kg per min, s.c.) or saline over a period of 3 days, 1 week or 4 weeks, constituting three separate groups and their respective controls.3. Coronal myocardial tissue sections underwent haematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa and picrosirius red staining, as well as immunohistochemistry for α-smooth muscle actin (SMA). Morphometric studies were undertaken in three different myocardial regions: MI, remote non-infarcted subendocardium (non-MI SE) and remote non-infarcted interventricular septum (non-MI IVS).4. The MI size was comparable between Hoe140-treated groups and their respective controls (day 3: 42 ± 4%, n = 8, vs 43 ± 3%, n = 6; week 1: 37 ± 5%, n = 5, vs 39 ± 2%, n = 5; week 4: 35 ± 3%, n = 9, vs 36 ± 3%, n = 7). At day 3, Hoe140 treatment reduced inflammatory cell reaction within the MI (585 ± 59 vs 995 ± 170 cells/mm2; P = 0.02), non-MI SE (77 ± 12 vs 214 ± 57 cells/mm2; P = 0.02) and non-MI IVS (93 ± 16 vs 135 ± 14 cells/mm2; P = 0.03) regions. Mast cells were reduced within the non-MI IVS region (0.8 ± 0.1 vs 2.5 ± 0.4 cells/mm2; P = 0.006), but not within the MI region. In non-MI SE, mast cells were rarely found. At week 1, Hoe140 treatment reduced α-SMA-positive myofibroblast infiltration within the MI (2535 ± 383 vs 5636 ± 968 cells/mm2; P = 0.01) and non-MI SE (222 ± 33 vs 597 ± 162 cells/mm2; P = 0.03) regions. In the non-MI IVS region, α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts were rarely found. At week 4, Hoe140 treatment reduced collagen volume fraction within the MI (37 ± 4 vs 53 ± 4%; P = 0.03), non-MI SE (1.3 ± 0.2 vs 2.6 ± 0.3%; P = 0.001) and non-MI IVS (1.1 ± 0.2 vs 1.8 ± 0.2%; P = 0.01) regions.5. Bradykinin promotes inflammation, fibroplasia and fibrosis after MI. Mast cells may have a role in fibrosis deposition through a bradykinin-related mechanism.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY:  A 57-year-old man was admitted to hospital because of motor aphasia on 16 September 2000. He had an approximate 2-year history of haemodialysis treatment, since April 1997, and had received a cadaveric renal transplantation in July 1999. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass with ringed enhancement in the left temporal-parietal lobe. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (diffuse large B cell type) was diagnosed based on an open brain tumour biopsy. Epstein–Barr virus early RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization showed positive signals in the nuclei of the CNS lymphoma cells. A dose reduction of immunosuppressant and three series of high-dose methotrexate (MTX) therapy with leucovorine rescue followed by irradiation (whole brain irradiation, 30 Gy; partial brain tumour irradiation, 20 Gy) were carried out for his primary CNS lymphoma. The patient is currently in good condition (September 2004) with no enlargement of the lymphoma, as examined by MRI every 3 months, and preserved renal function.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Several studies in Western countries showed that proton-pump inhibitors are superior to histamine2-receptor antagonists or placebo in the treatment of non-erosive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The efficacy of acid-suppressive drugs for non-erosive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Japan, in which the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is higher compared with Western countries, is unknown.Aim : To compare the efficacy of famotidine and omeprazole in Japanese patients with non-erosive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease by a prospective randomized multicentre trial.Methods : A total of 98 patients received either famotidine 20 mg b.d. (n = 48) or omeprazole once daily (n = 50). Frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms and health-related quality of life were evaluated at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. Complete relief was defined as no gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms during the 7-day interval in week 4.Results : Complete relief was achieved in 23 (48%) of patients receiving famotidine and 28 (56%) of patients treated with omeprazole. In the famotidine group, complete relief rate in H. pylori-negative patients was significantly lower than H. pylori-positive patients (35% vs. 64%). Both famotidine and omeprazole improved most scales of health-related quality of life. Omeprazole significantly improved reflux score irrespective of H. pylori infection while famotidine significantly improved reflux score in H. pylori-positive patients but not in H. pylori-negative patients.Conclusions : Omeprazole is more effective than famotidine for the control of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms in H. pylori-negative patients, while similar efficacy is observed in H. pylori-positive patients with non-erosive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature structural & molecular biology 12 (2005), S. 127-132 
    ISSN: 1545-9985
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Myosin V is a calmodulin-binding motor protein. The dissociation of single calmodulin molecules from individual myosin V molecules at 1 μM Ca2+ correlates with a reduction in sliding velocity in an in vitro motility assay. The dissociation of two calmodulin molecules at 5 μM Ca2+ correlates ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Expression of somatostatin in the brain declines during aging in various mammals including apes and humans. A prominent decrease in this neuropeptide also represents a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer disease. Using in vitro and in vivo paradigms, we show that somatostatin regulates the ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 433 (2005), S. 171-176 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Microtubules of the mitotic spindle form the structural basis for chromosome segregation. In metaphase, microtubules show high dynamic instability, which is thought to aid the ‘search and capture’ of chromosomes for bipolar alignment on the spindle. Microtubules suddenly become more stable at ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To investigate the cellular/molecular mechanisms of nickel (Ni) tolerance in high-biomass-producing plants, we selected a Ni-tolerant (NIT) cell line from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. bright yellow-2) suspension culture. Examination of response to various abiotic stresses showed that the NIT cells acquired remarkable tolerance to excess Ni, Cu, and Al but not to the other stresses. That the NIT cells accumulated approximately 2 mM Ni under the 700 µM Ni condition suggests that the NIT cells can hyperaccumulate Ni and possess internal detoxification mechanisms for Ni. Two different sizes of putative β-d-xylosidase were constitutively secreted by the NIT cells, and the NIT cells showed greater elongation than the wild-type (WT) cells. Oxalate, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, and glutamate contents were constitutively two- or three-fold higher in the NIT cells than in the WT cells, and histidine content was increased by up to three-fold in the NIT cells exposed to 700 µM Ni compared to those in the WT cells. Newport green DCF diacetate (NPG), a Ni-specific fluorescence indicator, enabled the visualization of the subcellular localization of Ni in both WT and NIT cells. The NPG fluorescence was localized mainly in the vacuoles regardless of the WT or NIT cells under excess Ni conditions. The transport of Ni-organic acids and/or Ni-histidine complex into the vacuoles might be an important mechanism contributing to the high Ni tolerance of and the hyperaccumulation of Ni by the NIT cells.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Histopathology 47 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aims : To characterize a series of colorectal polyps, focusing on the clinicopathological features of serrated adenoma (SA), mixed polyp (MP) and the recently recognized sessile serrated adenoma (SSA).Methods and results : Eight hundred and ninety-one conventional adenomas (AD), 298 hyperplastic polyps (HP), 27 SSA, 10 MP and 24 traditional SA were obtained from patients during colonoscopic examination. SSA were more likely to be proximally located than other polyps. All SA, MP and SSA and a randomly selected subset of HP (n = 61) and ADs (n = 93) were assessed for expression of mucin, MLH1, MGMT, and Ki67. SSA expressed more MUC5AC than either HP or SA. Loss of MLH1 was not observed in any serrated polyps and in only one AD. Loss of MGMT occurred in 13% of AD, and showed no correlation with histological type, size or location. Loss of MGMT occurred in 24% of SSA, MP and SA (combined), and was more frequent in proximal lesions and larger lesions. SSA had a higher proliferative index than HP. In MP, the proliferative index of the non-dysplastic component was closer to HP than SSA, while the dysplastic component was intermediate between SA and AD.Conclusions : SSA differ from other serrated polyps of colorectum in terms of location, morphology and immunophenotype.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA , and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We present a case of a 49-year-old man who experienced invariably reproducible paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia during swallowing. Because beta-blockers and multiple antiarrhythmic drugs failed to prevent the episodes of this tachycardia, we performed catheter mapping and ablation. After placing multiple decapolar catheters, when the patient swallowed a few sections of an orange, intracardiac mapping revealed atrial premature beats and atrial tachycardia that lasted for a few seconds and arose from an ostial site of the right superior pulmonary vein. After the right superior pulmonary vein antrum was completely isolated, the patient became free from the swallowing-induced tachycardia.
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