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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract –  Objectives:  To explore, among the institutionalized elderly in Spain, the association between functional dependence in manipulating aids used in oral self-care (oral hygiene dependence) and general functional capacities, as measured by the Index of Activities of Daily Oral Hygiene (ADOH) and the Barthel Index (BI), respectively.Methods:  A cross-sectional study was performed in 2002 on 390 Spanish residents of a residential home for the elderly aged, 65–101 years. All study subjects underwent a oral examination and their ADOH and BI scores assessed. The association between the index scores was studied and the discriminant capacity of BI for oral hygiene dependence was calculated.Results:  The mean number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (±SD) was 26.6 ± 7.3. The mean BI score was 68.31 (95% CI 64.35–72.27), and 172 individuals (44.1%; 95% CI 39.2–49.0%) were independent in all BI-measured functions. The mean ADOH score was 2.43 (95% CI 2.11–2.75), and 238 individuals (61.0%; 95% CI 56.2–65.9%) were independent for oral hygiene, 39 (10.0%; 95% CI 7.2–13.4%) required assistance (assistive devices), and 113 (29.0%; 95% CI 24.5–33.5%) were completely dependent. The BI scores were significantly correlated with the ADOH scores (r = −0.80, P 〈 0.001). The BI showed a high discriminant capacity to identify the individuals who were dependent for oral hygiene in this population (area under the ROC curve ± SE = 0.929 ± 0.013). Using the optimal cut-off point according to the Youden Index (〈61), the sensitivity was 0.87 ± 0.03 and specificity 0.87 ± 0.02.Conclusion:  There is a close association between BI and ADOH in this population, which could be useful to identify elderly individuals who are dependent for oral hygiene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background  Recurrent infection syndrome (RIS) results from repeated interactions between hosts and environmental infectious agents and is considered normal (NRIS) because of its benign evolution and positive effects in the development of normal immune responses. Abnormal RIS (ARIS) is characterized by the unusually high frequency of severe infections, either as a result of anatomical or functional abnormalities or due to primary or secondary immunodeficiencies (PIDs and SIDs, respectively). Recurrent mucocutaneous infections (MCIs) can be manifestations of RIS or ARIS and could be more frequent in primary immunodeficiencies. Similarly, etiologic agents might vary from what is observed in the general population.Methods  We carried out a descriptive study to determine the prevalence of aerobic bacterial and fungal mucocutaneous infections in 452 patients with recurrent infections, using clinical records to establish immunological status associated with the presence and characteristics of the infections. Microbiological analyses from mucocutaneous lesions were used to confirm the etiology.Results  We found mucocutaneous infections in 50 patients for a total of 62 episodes (bacterial or fungal infections in 38 vs. 12 patients, respectively). Mucocutaneous infections were more frequent (21.8% vs. 9.1%; OR = 2.8) and recurrent (8.7% vs. 0.2%; P= 0.000) in primary immunodeficient patients. Furthermore, those with defects in phagocytic cells presented more mucocutaneous infections (56.2%) than patients with other primary immunodeficiencies (11.3%; OR = 10.1).Conclusions  Bacterial and fungal mucocutaneous infections are more frequent and severe in primary immunodeficient patients, particularly those with defective phagocytosis. Early and adequate assessment of the nature of mucocutaneous infections in ARIS should impact the ability of physicians to treat promptly, avoid complications and reduce the costs of medical assistance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 442 (2006), S. 259-264 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Darwin used the metaphor of a ‘tangled bank’ to describe the complex interactions between species. Those interactions are varied: they can be antagonistic ones involving predation, herbivory and parasitism, or mutualistic ones, such as those involving the pollination of flowers by insects. ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background  Although children of bipolar parents are at heightened risk for developing emotional disorders, the processes underlying this vulnerability are not well understood. This study examined biases in the processing of emotional stimuli as a potential vulnerability marker of bipolar disorder.Methods:  Sixteen children of bipolar parents who did not show any indication of having an emotional disorder at the time of testing and ten children of never-disordered control parents underwent a negative mood induction designed to activate cognitive schemas and were then administered an emotion Stroop task and a self-referent encoding task.Results:  Children of bipolar parents were found to exhibit an attentional bias towards social-threat and manic-irritable words. Furthermore, although high- and low-risk children did not differ in their endorsement of positive and negative words as self-descriptive, the high-risk children demonstrated better recall of negative words than did the low-risk children.Conclusions:  Thus, children without a mood disorder who are at high risk for developing a mood disorder were found to exhibit biases in attention and memory that are similar to those found for bipolar and unipolar depressed adults, suggesting that children at increased risk for affective disorder are characterized by potentially pathogenic cognitive structures that can be activated by sad mood. These findings offer insights into mechanisms of cognitive vulnerability for bipolar disorders.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1474-8673
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: 1 Our aim was to study the role of nitric oxide (NO) and arachidonic acid pathways in the α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in mesenteric resistance arteries from 3–4 and 22 to 23-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. 2 The expression of NO synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms, soluble guanylate cyclase, superoxide dismutase and the NAD(P)H oxidase subunits p22phox and p47phox were determined. 3 The NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, shifted to the left but indomethacin and NS 398, non-selective and selective COX-2 inhibitors, shifted to the right the concentration-response curve for the vasoconstriction by phenylephrine in both age groups. 4 Ageing up-regulated endothelial NOS and p22phox expression but did not modify COX, soluble guanylate cyclase, superoxide dismutase and p47phox expression. 5 These data suggest that the observed enhancement of eNOS protein expression could constitute a compensatory mechanism to counter-regulate a chronic loss of NO possibly through increased superoxide anion production from NAD(P)H oxidase induced by age.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    London : Henry Stewart Talks
    Keywords: Mitochondria / genetics
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Introduction to the mitochondrial genetic system -- Features of mammalian mitochondrial DNA -- Characteristics of mitochondrial genetics -- Mitochondrial DNA replication: strand-displacement and strand-coupled models -- Proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA replication -- Mitochondrial DNA transcription -- Isolation and mapping of mitochondrial RNA -- Model of transcription and RNA processing -- Regulation of mtDNA expression by thyroid hormones -- Regulation of the mammalian mtDNA expression by mTERF phosphorylation
    Notes: Animated audio-visual presentation with synchronized narration.
    Pages: 1 streaming video file (23 min.) : digital, mono., SWF file, sd., col.
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