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  • 2005-2009  (1)
  • 2000-2004  (8)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Allostasis ; allostatic load ; aging brain ; excitatory amino acid ; excitotoxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The adaptive responses of the body to challenges, often known as “stressors”, consists of active responses that maintain homeostasis. This process of adaptation is known as “allostasis”, meaning “achieving stability through change”. Many systems of the body show allostasis, including the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and they help to re-establish or maintain homeostasis through adaptation. The brain also shows allostasis, involving the activation of nerve cell activity and the release of neurotransmitters. When the individual is challenged repeatedly or when the allostatic systems remain turned on when no longer needed, the mediators of allostasis can produce a wear and tear on the body that has been termed “allostatic load”. Examples of allostatic load include the accumulation of abdominal fat, the loss of bone minerals and the atrophy of nerve cells in the hippocampus. Circulating stress hormones play a key role, and, in the hippocampus, excitatory amino acids and NMDA receptors are important mediators of neuronal atrophy. The aging brain seems to be more vulnerable to such effects, although there are considerable individual differences in vulnerability that can be developmentally determined. Yet, at the same time, excitatory amino acids and NMDA receptors mediate important types of plasticity in the hippocampus. Moreover, the brain retains considerable resilience in the face of stress, and estrogens appear to play a role in this resilience. This review discusses the current status of work on underlying mechanisms for these effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Doublecortin (DCX) is a protein required for normal neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is widely expressed in both radially and tangentially migrating neuroblasts. Moreover, it has been observed in the adult rostral migratory stream, which contains the neuronal precursors traveling to the olfactory bulb. We have performed DCX immunocytochemistry in the adult rat brain to identify precisely the neuronal populations expressing this protein. Our observations confirm the presence of DCX immunoreactive cells with the characteristic morphology of migrating neuroblasts in the subventricular zone, rostral migratory stream and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. We have also found putative migratory cells expressing DCX in regions were no adult neuronal migration has been described, as the corpus callosum, the piriform cortex layer III/endopiriform nucleus and the striatum. Surprisingly, many cells with the phenotype of differentiated neurons were DCX immunoreactive; e.g. certain granule neurons in the hilar border of the granular layer of the dentate gyrus, some neuronal types in the piriform cortex layer II, granule and periglomerular neurons in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, and isolated cells in the striatum. Almost all DCX immunoreactive cells also express the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule and have a similar distribution to rat collapsin receptor-mediated protein-4, two molecules involved in neuronal structural plasticity. Given these results, we hypothesize that DCX expression in differentiated neurons could be related to its capacity for microtubule reorganization and that this fact could be linked to axonal outgrowth or synaptogenesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: During adulthood, neural precursors located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus continue to proliferate, leading to the generation of new granule neurons. These recently generated cells transiently express the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule, PSA-NCAM, and are supported by radial glia-like cells that are likely to play a role in neuronal migration and differentiation, or even act as their precursors. Previous reports indicate that treatment with NMDA receptor antagonists stimulates adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, and because of the potential therapeutic value of this approach, we were interested in further characterizing the consequences of pharmacologically modulating this process. We treated adult rats with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, CGP43487, and examined cell proliferation, PSA-NCAM expression, and changes in the radial glia cell population in the subgranular zone at different time points. In addition, we sought to determine if this treatment led to changes in cell death or gliotic reactions. The number of proliferating cells in the subgranular region of the dentate gyrus was increased significantly 2 days after treatment and it remained elevated 7 days postinjection. PSA-NCAM-immunoreactive granule cells and nestin-expressing radial glia-like cells also increased in number 7 days after the treatment. In contrast, we did not observe any change in granule cell death, and we were unable to detect any microglial or astroglial reaction during the first 7 days after treatment. Thus, NMDA receptor antagonist treatment serves as a valuable tool to increase neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus without undesirable collateral deleterious effects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Chronic restraint stress has been shown to induce structural remodelling throughout the interconnected dentate gyrus-CA3 fields. To find out how this stressor affects the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we subjected rats to acute or chronic restraint stress and assessed the proliferation, survival and differentiation of newly born cells in the dentate gyrus. We also examined polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule expression, a molecule normally expressed in immature neurons and important for morphological plasticity. The results show that acute restraint stress did not change either the proliferation of dentate gyrus precursor cells or the expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, whereas 3 weeks of chronic restraint stress suppressed proliferation by 24% and increased polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule expression by 40%. The study was extended for an additional 3 weeks to trace the survival and development of the cells born after the initial 3 weeks of restraint. Rats subjected to 6 weeks of daily restraint stress exhibited suppressed cell proliferation and attenuated survival of the recently born cells after the extended time course, resulting in a 47% reduction of granule cell neurogenesis. Furthermore, 6 weeks of chronic stress significantly reduced the total number of granule cells by 13% and the granule cell layer volume by 5%. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule followed a biphasic time course, displaying a significant up-regulation after 3 weeks of daily restraint stress that was lost after 6 weeks of stress. These studies may help us understand the basis for hippocampal shrinkage and raise questions about the ultimate reversibility of the effects of chronic stress.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1527-3458
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Stress is a part of daily life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis remains unknown. In this study, we explored whether activation of the mitogen-activated kinase kinase 4 (MKK4)-c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway may play a role in the activation of the LHPA axis. We found that forced-swim stress induced elevation of activated MKK4 in the hippocampal formation, amygdala, and hypothalamus. Unlike MKK4, a high basal level of JNK activity is present in many brain areas of unstressed mice. Forced-swim stress significantly elevated JNK activity in the hypothalamus and amygdala and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex, CA1 and CA3 regions, and the dentate gyrus. To further investigate the role of MKK4 and JNK in induction of stress responses, we investigated whether a different stress, namely, restraint stress, induced activation of MKK4 or JNK in the brain. We found that restraint stress also induced elevation of activated MKK4 and JNK in the hippocampal formation, amygdala, and hypothalamus. Because MKK4 and JNK were activated within 5 min following stress, we propose that the MKK4-JNK signaling may be an early neural event in the initiation of neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral stress responses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cerebral apolipoprotein E (apoE) has been implicated in neuronal protection and repair. Due to the variable levels and types of estrogen receptors within different brain regions, the effect of estrogen on apoE and the mechanism of this effect may vary within different regions. Ovariectomized female C57BL/6 mice were treated with pharmacological levels of 17β-estradiol or placebo for 5 days, resulting in supraphysiological plasma levels of estradiol in the treated mice. ApoE and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels were measured in the cortex, hippocampus and diencephalon. 17β-Estradiol up-regulated apoE but not GFAP in the cortex and diencephalon, whereas in the hippocampus, GFAP and apoE were equally up-regulated. Treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) α knockout mice with 17β-estradiol or treatment of C57BL/6 mice with 17α-estradiol, a poor estrogen receptor agonist, specifically induced apoE in the cortex, but not in the diencephalon. These results indicate that 17β-estradiol effects on apoE are either directly or indirectly mediated by ERα in the diencephalon, while the effects in the cortex may be mediated by a non-classical mechanism or by ERβ. Measurement of mRNA levels in estrogen versus placebo-treated wild-type mice indicated that the effect of 17β-estradiol on apoE was not associated with changes in apoE mRNA levels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 41 (2001), S. 569-591 
    ISSN: 0362-1642
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Originally known for its regulation of reproductive functions, estradiol, a lipophilic hormone that can easily cross plasma membranes as well as the blood-brain barrier, maintains brain systems subserving arousal, attention, mood, and cognition. In addition, both synthetic and natural estrogens exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. There is increasing evidence that estrogen actions are mediated by nongenomic as well as direct and indirect genomic pathways. Although in vitro models have provided the most extensive evidence for neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions to date, there are also in vivo studies that support these actions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
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    London : Henry Stewart Talks
    Keywords: Hormones
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Estrogen regulation of female sexual behavior in the rat -- Adrenal steroids and spatial memory -- Steroid hormone metabolism in brain -- Limitation of steroid access -- Rapid non-genomic actions of steroids in brain -- Steroid regulation of signaling pathways -- Steroid hormones have widespread effects on brain structure and function -- Effects of estrogens on synapse formation in hippocampus -- Effects of stress and glucocorticoids on dendritic remodeling in hippocampus -- Sexual differentiation of the brain
    Notes: Animated audio-visual presentation with synchronized narration.
    Pages: 1 streaming video file (27 min.) : digital, mono., SWF file, sd., col.
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