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  • 2000-2004  (85)
  • 1980-1984  (92)
  • 1955-1959  (9)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The modulatory effects of Zn2+ and other divalent cations on the ATP-induced responses of preganglionic neurons acutely dissociated from the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) were examined using a nystatin-perforated patch technique under voltage-clamp. DMV neurons were identified by back-filling of DiI placed on the vagal bundle at the neck. Zn2+ exerts a concentration-dependent effect on P2X receptor-mediated current (IATP): a potentiation by low concentrations of Zn2+ (≤ 50 µm) and an inhibition by high concentrations (〉 50 µm). Inhibition of the ATP response was associated with a prolongation of the rising phase of IATP. Cu2+ mimicked Zn2+ regarding the biphasic modulation of IATP. On the other hand, Ni2+ potentiated, but failed to inhibit, the ATP response even at a concentration of 3 mm. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed the similarity of P2X2 mRNA expression between the DMV and superior cervical ganglion (SCG) but not in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hypoglossal nucleus (XII). The results from the electrophysiological and molecular approaches suggest that functional P2X receptors expressed in DMV neurons are characterized mainly by the P2X2 and P2X2/6 subtype. DMV neurons possess similar P2X receptor characteristics to SCG neurons.
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  121. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie; 20040427-20040430; Berlin; DOC04dgch1114 /20041007/
    Publication Date: 2004-10-07
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: alpha-adrenergic blocker ; hypertension ; blood pressure ; pulse rate ; noradrenaline ; plasma renin activity ; plasma aldosterone ; dopamine-beta-hydroxylase ; E-643
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary To determine whether E-643, a new α-blocking agent, would reduce the blood pressure, regardless of the posture, a 1 mg dose was given 3 times daily for 7 consecutive days, to 8 male and 7 female inpatients, aged 37–73 years, with essential hypertension. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured daily in the supine, sitting and standing positions. Before and after the treatment with E-643, plasma levels of noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine-β-hydroxylase, renin and aldosterone were determined, samples being obtained with the subjects recumbent and after standing upright for 60 min. A significant reduction in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures was evident in the supine (172±31/100±12 → 151±28/89±14 mmHg), sitting (158±22/101±11 → 138±28/89±15 mmHg) and standing (153±32/103±21 → 129±31/89±20 mmHg) positions. The reduction in blood pressure remained unchanged throughout the period of administration of E-643. Pulse rate was not affected when the subjects were supine (67±10 → 69±10 beats/min), but was increased in the sitting (68±10 → 73±9 beats/min) and standing (73±10 → 81±11 beats/min) positions. The increased pulse rate tended to decline during continued administration of E-643. Treatment with E-643 produced no significant change in plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine-β-hydroxylase, renin and aldosterone. The antihypertensive effect of treatment was more prominent in the patients with higher levels of plasma catecholamines and dopamine-β-hydroxylase, and was less prominent in those with higher plasma renin and aldosterone. Two patients had temporary bouts of dizziness and visual disturbances, but there were no subjective complaints during treatment.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cyclic 3′, 5′-mononucleotide phosphodiesterase (cyclic nucleotide PDEase) activity was studied histo-and cytochemically in the retinal rod photoreceptor cells of the rat by means of a newly developed technique utilizing the intrinsic 5′ nucleotidase activity instead of an exogenous 5′ nucleotidase source (snake venom). Cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP were used as substrates. When cyclic GMP was used as a substrate, the intense activity of phosphodiesterase (PDEase) was distributed over the entire rod outer segments; reaction product was observed on the plasmalemma and on the disk membranes of the outer segments. A slight reaction was also observed on the plasmalemma of the inner segments. However, no precipitate was found in the perinuclear and synaptic regions of the rod photoreceptors. In contrast, when cyclic AMP was utilized as a substrate, a moderate reaction was seen in the synaptic region of the plexiform layer. The intensity of the reaction in the outer segments was much reduced in comparison to the results with cyclic GMP. The enzyme activity was almost completely inhibited by 2 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) or 2 mM theophylline, which were potent inhibitors of PDEase. To confirm the propriety of our new cytochemical method, the localization of 5′ nucleotidase was also studied utilizing 5′ AMP or 5′ GMP as substrates. In contrast to the activity of cyclic nucleotide PDEase, the activity of 5′ nucleotidase was distributed on all membranes of the photoreceptors from the synaptic outer plexiform layer to the tip of outer segments. After inhibition of the intrinsic 5′ nucleotidase activity with the use of 1 mM Ni-ions or 10 mM NaF no demonstration of cyclic nucleotide PDEase activity was possible; the existence of intrinsic 5′ nucleotidase activity is necessary for the release of free phosphateions from 5′ AMP (5′ GMP), which are a prerequisite for the histochemical reaction. For comparison, some sections were incubated with the conventional cyclic nucleotide PDEase incubation medium containing snake venom from Ophiophagus hannah. With this conventional method, morphological preservation was extremely poor, and moreover, the reaction itself was weaker than that with the presently described method.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Periodical changes in Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activity were observed cytochemically in the crayfish gastrolith epithelium during the molting cycle in relation to the calcium transport mechanism. The ATPase activity was demonstrated by a new one-step lead citrate method. The reaction products were mainly restricted to the matrix of type II cell mitochondria. The Ca2+-ATPase activity was intensely observed in two calcium moving stages, the small gastrolith period which indicates the beginning of gastrolith formation, and the aftermolt, when the calcified gastrolith has been dissolved in the stomach and then reabsorbed from the stomach epithelium into the newly formed soft exoskeleton through the blood. Although the intensity of reaction products of Mg2+-ATPase varied in each stage, the enzymatic activity was observed throughout all molting stages. Reaction products were observed in all mitochondria, basement membranes, apical cytoplasmic membranes, and in some lysosomes. In conclusion, periodical changes in the two types of ATPase activity were seen in the mitochondria of gastrolith epithelium during the molting cycle, but Ca2+-ATPase activity seemed to be more prominently synchronized to the calcium movement in the gastrolith epithelium than Mg2+-ATPase activity. These results provide the strong evidence that Ca2+-ATPase may act strongly in the calcium transport system of crayfish molting.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. In the last 15 years, four patients with the infantile form of Sandhoff disease were diagnosed in four different families in Cyprus (population 703,000, birth rate 1.7%). Three of these cases came from the Christian Maronite community (less than 1% of the population) and one from the Greek community (84% of the population). This relatively large number of patients prompted us to initiate an epidemiological study in order to establish the frequency of the mutant allele in Cyprus. Carrier detection was initially based on the measurement of β-hexosaminidase A and B in both leucocytes and serum. Using the enzyme test, 35 carriers were identified among 244 random Maronite samples and 15 among 28 Maronites with a family history of Sandhoff disease, but only one carrier was found out of 115 random samples from the Greek community. In parallel to the biochemical screening, DNA studies were undertaken in one of the three Maronite patients and in a Greek carrier related to the Greek patient. These studies resulted in the identification of two novel mutations, a deletion of A at nt76 and a G to C transversion at position 5 of the 5'-splice site of intron 8, which have been published. We subsequently screened the carriers detected in the biochemical study for these two mutations using PCR-based tests. Of 50 Maronite carriers examined, 42 were found to have the nt76 deletion. Eight Maronite samples, designated carriers from the biochemical results, were negative for both mutations. It is possible that these individuals were incorrectly classified as carriers since their enzyme values are equivocal, although the presence of another mutation has not been excluded. Two Greek Cypriot carriers and two obligate Lebanese carriers were negative for both mutations. We conclude that there is a high frequency of Sandhoff disease carriers in the Maronite community of Cyprus, approximately 1 in 7, and that a single mutation predominates in this population.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Keywords Cavernous angioma ; Cerebral angiography ; Dynamic scan ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Sinus pericranii
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Objects: Sinus pericranii is only a symptom complex, and it can have a variety of etiologies. Therefore, it is important to differentiate these etiologies preoperatively by means of radiological examinations. A 5-year-old boy was admitted with a soft and fluctuant tumor in the right parietal region near the midline. The tumor appeared when the child was in a recumbent position, distending noticeably with the Valsalva maneuver and disappearing completely when the patient was in the sitting position. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion with honeycomb-like heterogeneous iso- and low-intensity signals on the T1-weighted image and with heterogeneous high- and iso- intensity signal on the T2-weighted image. Dynamic study with an injection of gadolinium diethylene-triaminopentaacetic acid demonstrated and nodular peripheral enhancement at early phase and subsequent progressive enhancement towards the center of tumor. The internal carotid angiogram was normal. The external carotid angiogram, however, showed a tumor stain fed by the superficial temporal arteries. The stain was retained until the late phase and drained into the scalp veins and into the superior sagittal sinus. Following direct injection of contrast medium into the tumor there was prolonged retention of the medium in the tumor and leakage into scalp veins and the superior sagittal sinus. The mass under the periosteum was totally removed and proved to be a cavernous angioma. Conclusions: Scalp cavernous angioma is one of the etiologies of sinus pericranii and may be diagnosed preoperatively by cerebral angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Serial dynamic magnetic resonance imaging will be particularly helpful for this diagnosis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Type C retrovirus-like particles ; Electron and immunohistological microscopy ; Human placentas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Seventeen placentas from normal Japanese women, obtained from 15 full term gestations and at 2 earlier gestational periods, were observed by electron microscopy for the presence of type C retrovirus-like particles. Immature free and budding particles were found in 16 placentas including those obtained pre-term. Free virus-like particles were seen in the intercellular spaces and within the lysosomes of syncytiotrophoblasts of the chorionic villi. Forms budding from syncytiotrophoblasts were found in 3 cases. Coincident data with the electron microscopic observations were obtained by immunohistological methods. Specific positive staining with antisera against heterogeneic whole murine leukaemia virus were seen within the cytoplasm of trophoblastic cells both in and along the basal lamina.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Blood-brain barrier ; Horseradish ¶peroxidase ; Periventricular area ; Perivascular cells ; Virchow-Robin space
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The main objective of this study was to assess the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in periventricular areas of the normal mouse brain to test the hypothesis that the fragility of the BBB in periventricular areas may play a role in periventricular white matter lesions. Vascular permeability to intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was examined in the periventricular areas of adult mouse brain using light and electron microscopy. Staining for HRP appeared in the periventricular area adjacent to medial side of the lateral ventricle as well as in BBB-free areas, in the lateral septal nucleus, in the medial portion of the hippocampus and in the dorsal portion of the thalamus. In addition, the staining for HRP appeared in ependymal cell layer located near the choroid plexus and was found early after HRP injection in the wall of some vessels located at medial side of the optic tract. Ultrastructural examination of the vessel wall revealed that staining for HRP in the perfusion-fixed mice after circulation of the tracer for 5 min appeared in the perivascular space, in the basal lamina, in several vesicular profiles of the endothelial cell cytoplasm including abluminal pits, in vesicular profiles of perivascular cells and in the adjacent extracellular space. In the mice perfusion-fixed after HRP circulation for 90 min, staining for HRP in the vessels at medial side of the optic tract appeared in the cytoplasm of the perivascular cells, in vesicular structures of the endothelial cell cytoplasm such as plasmalemmal vesicles, endosomes and multivesicular bodies and occasionally in the vascular basal lamina. No clear staining reaction for HRP was found in the periventricular areas adjacent to lateral side of the lateral ventricles. These findings indicate that the BBB in the periventricular area adjacent to medial side of the lateral ventricle near the root of the choroid plexus is not so tight as it is in the cortex or in the lateral periventricular areas, and suggest that the perivascular cells play a scavenger role in the periventricular area as a component of the BBB. In addition, they indicate that blood-borne macromolecules can also invade the areas adjacent to the ventricles such as the lateral septal nucleus, the medial portion of the hippocampus and the dorsal portion of the thalamus.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Keywords Erythromycin, motilin, insulin, Type II diabetes mellitus, motilide.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aims/hypothesis. Erythromycin mimics the effect of the gastrointestinal hormone motilin by binding to its receptor and acting as a motilin agonist. We recently found that motilin stimulates insulin secretion at lower doses than doses required to stimulate gastric contractile activity. We studied the effects of erythromycin on insulin secretion and glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus.¶Methods. Inpatients (n = 34) with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive either erythromycin (400 mg orally three times a day, n = 19) or a placebo (n = 15) for 1 week (first study). Another 34 outpatients with Type II diabetes were also treated with erythromycin (200 mg orally three times a day, n = 17) or a placebo (n = 17) for 4 weeks (second study). Finally, nine inpatients with Type II diabetes and eight normal control subjects received intravenous erythromycin (10 mg · kg–1· h–1) or saline infusion and insulin secretion was examined (third study).¶Results. Erythromycin lowered fasting blood glucose and fructosamine concentrations (p 〈 0.01) and increased basal as well as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (p 〈 0.05–0.01) (first study). Low doses of erythromycin treatment for 4 weeks also significantly improved glycaemic control in Type II diabetic patients (second study). Erythromycin infusion significantly increased plasma insulin and decreased glucose concentrations in Type II diabetic and control subjects and greatly potentiated glucose-induced insulin secretion in the latter (third study).¶Conclusion/interpretation. These results indicate that erythromycin given orally has an antidiabetogenic effect and therefore erythromycin derivatives that lack the antibacterial activity could have a therapeutic value in Type II diabetic patients. [Diabetologia (2000) 43: 411–415]
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