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  • Springer  (13)
  • 2000-2004  (10)
  • 1970-1974  (3)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Bile duct injury — Cholangiography — Common bile duct calculi — Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The routine use of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains controversial. Methods: A retrospective review of 950 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed during an 8-year period was performed. For the first 2 years, IOC was performed selectively, and thereafter routinely. Results: Attempted in 896 patients, IOC was successful in 734 (82%). Bile duct stones were found in 77 patients (10%), dilated ducts without stones in 47 patients (6%), and anatomic variations in 4 patients (0.5%). There were four (0.4%) minor intraoperative complications related to the IOC, with no consequences for the patients. There were three (0.3%) minor injuries of the bile duct, which were identified with IOC and repaired at the time of cholecystectomy without any consequences for the patients. In two of these patients, the structure recognized and catheterized as the cystic duct was revealed by IOC to be the bile duct. Thus IOC prevented extension to a major common bile duct (CBD) injury. Conclusions: Findings show that IOC is a safe technique. Its routine use during laparoscopic cholecystectomy may not prevent bile duct injuries, but it minimizes the extent of the injury so that it can be repaired easily without any consequences for the patient. The prevention of a major bile duct injury makes IOC cost effective.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0460
    Keywords: Key words: Modified barium swallow — Dysphagia — Swallow database — Modified barium swallow outcomes — Deglutition —Deglutition disorders.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the immediate and clinically relevant information gained from the modified barium swallow study and to determine the impact of the procedure on patient management. A database containing a nonrandom sample of 608 swallowing studies was reviewed. Results showed that only 10.4% of the studies were classified as normal examinations and aspiration occurred in 32.4%. However, swallowing abnormality without aspiration was recorded in 57.2% of the studies. Five additional outcome variables were assessed: referrals made to other specialties, effectiveness of applied compensatory strategies, treatment recommendations, mode of intake change, and diet grade change. Nearly 83% of the 608 studies showed change in at least one of the variables: needed referral to a specialist was identified on 26.3%; compensatory strategies that improved swallow physiology were identified on 48.4%; swallowing therapy was recommended on 37.2%; changes in mode of intake occurred on 31.4%; and diet texture changes were recommended on 43.8%. The low percentage of normal studies coupled with the high percentage of change in measurable variables indicate high clinical utility for the modified barium swallow study. The misguided tendency to refer to the modified barium study only as a tool for identifying aspiration and the appropriate utilization of the examination for identification of underlying abnormality in swallowing physiology are explained.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-4475
    Keywords: Keywords. 6-Chloro-2-acetamidophenyl acetate; 6-Bromo-2-acetamidophenyul acetate; 5 ; 6-Dichloro-2-acetamidophenyl acetate; 5 ; 6-Dibromo-2-acetamidophenyl acetate.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary.  2-Acetamido-5,6-dihalophenyl acetates were synthesized as intermediates for the preparation of 6, 7-dihalo-8-quinolinols via the Skraup procedure.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Canavanine kills Chlamydomonas reinhardi because it is incorporated into protein. This has made it possible to develop a convenient method for isolating mutants which are conditionally defective in protein synthesis. Sixty percent of all mutants isolated by this method prove to have reversible defects in protein synthesis. These mutants have a variety of phenotypes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Leishmania (Viannia)braziliensis and its variants were implicated in the epidemic outbreak of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis that occurred in Salta, northwestern Argentina, in 1985. A total of 24 suspected, untreated cases were evaluated clinically and parasitologically. Four of five stable isolates were consistent with the reference strain of L. (V.)braziliensis as determined by monoclonal antibodies and indirect immunofluorescence or radioimmunobinding assays. Zymodeme analysis in agarose gels showed a close relationship with L. (V.)guyanensis and L. (V.)panamensis. All zymograms obtained with polyacrylamide gels belonged to the subgenus Viannia; the patterns were different from, but very closely related to, the reference strains of L. (V.)braziliensis as determined by dendrogram analysis. Hamsters infected with two isolates showed a pattern consistent with L. (V.)braziliensis. The pattern of development in the gut of Lutzomyia longipalpis was consistent with members of Viannia.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Command fibers located in the circumesophageal connectives which modify scaphognathite and heart rhythms have been mapped and characterized in the crab,Cancer magister. Behavior: Crabs show a variety of responses to external stimuli often including simultaneous cessation of cardiac and scaphognathite “pumping”. Habituation and a return to prestimulus rhythms results from continued stimulation. The response to short stimulus durations, on the other hand, generally outlasts the stimulus indicating the playing-out of a motor program. Neurophysiology: Small bundles of fibers have been isolated from desheathed connectives. Activity in these fibers resulting from stimulation of various anterior sensory receptors was recordeden passant with suction electrodes. When sensory stimulation produced both electrical activity in the nerves under examination and a cardiac and/or scaphognathite response it was assumed such units were involved in inducing this response. This was tested by electrical stimulation delivered through the same electrode. Those units which produced similar responses to natural and artificial stimulation were deemed “command fibers”. It was invariably found that the minimum stimulating frequency needed to mimic naturally induced responses was much greater than the frequency at which the units discharged in response to those stimuli. During mapping experiments, command fibers were characterized with respect to their positions in the connectives and by the responses they produced at different frequencies of stimulation. 68% of the fibers identified affected both cardiac and scaphognathite systems, 29% the scaphognathites alone and 3% the heart alone. The frequency-response profiles of single bivalent command fibers were often different from the heart and scaphognathites. These findings help explain the responses of both systems to natural stimuli and also indicate that the circulatory and respiratory systems not only perform in concert, but are often under common control.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: KeywordsAmblyomma ; Tick ; Pheromone ; Behaviour ; Servosphere
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Male Amblyomma variegatum ticks feeding on a host release a mixture of o -nitrophenol and methyl salicylate which serves to attract conspecifics. The behavioural responses of A. variegatum on a servosphere to these volatiles presented in an air stream are detailed here. In still air, ticks walked on all eight legs, but with long halts. In contrast, the air stream caused continuous walking and induced a reaching response where the forelegs actively sampled the air. Such reaching increased the angular velocity and reduced walking speed, effects that were amplified in the presence of vapours from o -nitrophenol and methyl salicylate in the air flowing over the ticks. Vapour from a 1:1 mixture of o -nitrophenol and methyl salicylate was attractive over a 104-fold concentration range providing an increase in upwind displacement of 20–40%, significantly higher than the natural ratio where o -nitrophenol vapour predominates. Although the responses to o -nitrophenol vapour were variable when presented alone, this chemical was consistently attractive when delivered with steer hair odour – unattractive on its own. Moreover, the upwind walk to this combination did not cause a change in speed or angular velocity. This supports the hypothesis that the response to the pheromone is enhanced by host odour.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Cholangiography — Choledocholithiasis — Cost analysis — ERCP — Gallbladder — Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The detection of small and often asymptomatic gallbladder calculi within the bile duct at intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) frequently poses a management dilemma. Therefore, we set out to compare the outcomes and costs of two management strategies for small stones that remain in the bile duct after LC—routine postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) vs observation alone with ``on-demand'' ERCP. Methods: We studied 70 patients with bile duct stones among 922 consecutive patients who underwent LC between 1990 and 1997. Data were collected prospectively. Bile duct calculi were detected in 70 of 705 patients (9.9%) with successful IOC. Of these, 44 patients had large calculi (≥5 mm in diameter) and were subjected to a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. The remaining 26 patients had small calculi (〈5 mm in diameter); four of them had undergone preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy and duct clearance and were therefore excluded from analysis. Patients with small duct calculi were assigned, according to individual surgeon policy, to either routine postoperative ERCP (group A, n= 8) or observation (group B, n= 14). ERCP was reserved for those who become symptomatic. The two groups were comparable for age and sex distribution. Results: No complications developed during the follow-up period in patients assigned to observation, although four became symptomatic and underwent ERCP. In group A, ERCP demonstrated a clear biliary tree in four patients and bile duct calculi in three patients; it failed in one patient. In group B, ERCP demonstrated a clear bile duct in one patient and bile duct calculi in two patients; it also failed in one patient. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and duct clearance were achieved in all patients with demonstrable bile duct calculi at ERCP. There was no morbidity or mortality associated with ERCP. The overall hospital stay was significantly longer in group A than in group B (median 5 vs 1.5 days; p= 0.011); however, the number of outpatient clinic visits was significantly greater in group b (median 3 vs 5.5, p= 0.011). The mean hospital costs, including the costs of hospital stay, readmissions, ERCP, and follow-up, were significantly greater in group A than in group B (mean £2669 vs £1508, p= 0.008). Conclusion: A ``wait and see'' policy of observation alone for patients with small bile duct calculi detected at IOC during LC appears to be safe, and it is more cost-effective than routine postoperative ERCP. ERCP should be reserved for post-LC patients who become symptomatic.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract (1) From May to December 1971 at six sites in upstate New York, samples of freshwater Aufwuchs (the largely algal “scum” flora) were collected on sets of exposed microscope slides. Successive standing crop biomass estimates are presented as analyses of total organic carbon (by wet oxidation) and total nitrogen (by micro-Dumas). Nutritional quality of the Aufwuchs can be assessed in carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratios, and these are correlated with substantive data from concurrent studies on the growth and fecundity of second trophic level snails (Laevapex and Lymnaea). (2) Peak values of carbon biomass for the six sites range from 1.1 mgC/dm2 to 4.2 mgC/dm2, and mean C:N ratios ranged from 3.7:1 to 10.1:1 (corresponding to 29% protein). Higher snail growth rates (computed as increase in mgC/100 snails/30 days) and greater fecundities correlate, beyond certain minimal levels of carbon biomass, to lower C:N ratios in the corresponding Aufwuchs samples. (3) In discussing these nutritional aspects of Aufwuchs production, it is emphasized that freshwater macrophytes have C:N ratios well above 17:1, and are not much fed upon. In smaller bodies of fresh water, the most important sector of primary production is that of the Aufwuchs, and its nutritional quality in terms of lower C:N ratios is of unique significance to the bioenergetics of the second trophic level invertebrates.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Salvelinus confluentus ; Oncorhynchus clarki ; salmonids ; diel behavior ; habitat use ; winter ecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We used underwater observation to determine diel habitat partitioning between bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, and cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki, during fall and winter (0.1–8.3°C) in two Rocky Mountain streams that differed in habitat availability. The majority (〉70%) of both species emerged from concealment cover at night, though bull charr exhibited a greater tendency for nocturnal behavior than cutthroat trout. Differences in day and night counts were most pronounced at temperatures 〈3°C, when very few fish of either species were observed in the water column during the day, but both species were common at night. Both species used concealment cover of large woody debris and boulder substrate crevices in deep pools during the day. At night, fish emerged from cover and habitat use shifted to shallow water with low cover. Microhabitat partitioning among species and size classes occurred at night, cutthroat trout moving into shallower, faster water that was farther from cover compared to bull charr. Smaller fish of both species occupied focal positions in slower, shallower water closer to the substrate than larger fish. Large, mixed-species aggregations also were common in beaver ponds both day and night. High variation in diel and site-specific winter habitat use suggests the need for caution in developing habitat suitability criteria for salmonids based solely on daytime observations or on observations from a few sites. Our results support the need to incorporate nocturnal habitat use and partitioning in studies of salmonid ecology.
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