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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Chemical treatment assumes an important role in the management of radioactive wastes as it is a simple technique and offers advantage in terms of handling of wastes thereby reducing the risk of mansievert exposure. Low level wastes (LLW) and intermediate level wastes (ILW) are generated in various facets of nuclear fuel cycle and have various chemical composition. A systematic study was carried out by using copper ferrocyanide and calcium phosphate precipitation methods for the removal of cesium and strontium, respectively. The supernatants were subjected to ultra filtration (UF) using a membrane having a pore size of 0.2 μm. The decontamination factors (DF) at 2 and 24-hour intervals with and without UF were estimated. The DF obtained was in the range of 200–300 for cesium and 200 for strontium with LLW solution which has chemical characteristics similar to ground water. Two hours of settling is adequate for strontium before UF. In case of cesium there is no much change in the DF values by UF. However, the UF has helped in the solid — liquid separation as the flocks of copper ferrocyanide precipitate are feathery in nature. The effect of ionic strength and the presence of TBP on the removal efficiency of cesium and strontium have also been studied. DF are observed to be a function of ionic strength and are low in deionized water, in salt solutions containing 1 to 4M sodium nitrate and also in solutions of ILW. However, increasing the chemical dosing to two times of normal plant dosing has yielded a DF of about 200 for sodium nitrate solutions with respect to cesium removal. When the concentration of ammonium nitrate in the waste exceeds 0.1M, the DF reduces. Entrained TBP as well as soluble TBP reduces the removal efficiency of cesium. This paper deals with the experimental data and mechanism of the processes involved in the removal of cesium and strontium.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 89 (1934), S. 506-512 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-9813
    Keywords: Key words Posterior urethral valves ; Endoscopic treatment ; Nd:YAG laser
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Endoscopic management is the accepted form of treatment for posterior urethral valves (PUV) . The Nd:YAG laser has been in clinical use for many decades, but has been used only sporadically for ablating PUV. In this study, PUV were diagnosed by micturating cystourethrogram (MCU). In the 9-month period beginning March 1997, 23 boys 3 months to 9 years of age underwent endoscopic Nd:YAG laser surgery for PUV using a 600 quartz bare fibre through the catheter channel of an 8.5 F cystoscope. The laser power and total energy delivered ranged from 20 to 50 W and 50–1085 J, respectively. Type I PUV were present in 20 boys; 1 had type III, and in 1 boy each there were residual valves and a urethral stricture from a previous electrocautery ablation. All operations were done with the patient under general anaesthesia supplemented by caudal morphine. Routine postoperative cystoscopy was done in the first 5 cases only. All patients had a good stream of urine without bleeding or any other complication after valve ablation. Mucosal tags seen on follow-up cystoscopy in 5 patients were fulgurated by laser. In 4 other patients recystoscopy was required for deterioration of the urinary stream and persistent posterior urethral dilatation on MCU; residual valves were refulgurated by laser. An indwelling catheter was left in only 4 patients, 2 of whom were primarily operated and 2 following refulguration. All except the first 2 were treated as out-patients. Application of the Nd:YAG laser has added a new dimension for treating PUV. The initial experience has been very encouraging: the destruction of valves is precise, there are no complications, and it can be practised on a day-care basis without indwelling catheterisation. The bare fibre can be used repeatedly, thus reducing the cost of treatment.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1436-378X
    Keywords: Global climate model Indian monsoon Intraseasonal variability GHG forcings Regional climate change
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract. The broad climatological features associated with the Asian monsoon circulation, including its mean state and intraseasonal and interannual variability over the Indian subcontinent as simulated in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) global coupled climate system model (CSM) in its control reference experiment, are presented in this paper. The CSM reproduces the seasonal cycle as well as basic observed patterns of key climatic parameters reasonably well in spite of some limitations in simulation of the monsoon rainfall. However, while the seasonality in rainfall over the region is simulated well, the simulated area-averaged monsoon rainfall is underestimated to only about 60% of the observed rainfall. The centers of maxima in simulated monsoon rainfall are slightly displaced southward as compared to the climatological patterns. The cross-equatorial flow in simulated surface wind patterns during summer is also stronger than observed with an easterly bias. The transient experiment with a 1% per year compound increase in CO2 with CSM suggests an annual mean area-averaged surface warming of about 1.73 °C over the region at the time of CO2 doubling. This warming is more pronounced in winter than during the monsoon season. A net increase in area-averaged monsoon rainfall of about 1.4 mm day–1, largely due to increased moisture convergence and associated convective activity over the land, is obtained. The enhanced intraseasonal variability in the monsoon rainfall in a warmer atmosphere is confined to the early part of the monsoon season which suggests the possibility of the date of onset of summer monsoon over India becoming more variable in future. The enhanced interannual and intraseasonal variability in the summer monsoon activity over India could also contribute to more intense rainfall spells over the land regions of the Indian subcontinent, thus increasing the probability of extreme rainfall events in a warmer atmosphere.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Sex differences ; Nicotine ; Pentylenetetrazol ; Discriminative stimulus ; Ethanol withdrawal ; Anxiety
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Rationale: Nicotine and ethanol are frequently co-abused in men and women, but few studies compare common stimulus effects produced by these substances between males and females. Objectives: This study compared the anxiety-like behavior induced by nicotine prior to and during ethanol withdrawal in intact male, sham-operated female, and ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Using an animal model of anxiety, the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) drug-discrimination assay, rats were trained to discriminate PTZ (16 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline and were subjected to the following tests: (1) PTZ-lever selection at 12 h after termination of ethanol diet (4.5% for 10 days); (2) dose–response tests for nicotine (0.08– 1.3 mg/kg) prior to ethanol and 1.5, 6, and 7 days after ethanol withdrawal. Results: (1) During acute ethanol withdrawal (12 h), more male rats (43.4%) responded on the PTZ lever than OVX (29%) or sham female (15.3%) rats. (2) For nicotine dose–response tests, more male rats (70%) selected the PTZ lever than OVX (37.5%) or sham female (50%) rats prior to ethanol. At 1.5 days, nicotine fully generalized to the PTZ stimulus in male (100%) and OVX (90%), but only partially in sham female (50%) rats. At 6 days and 7 days after ethanol withdrawal, the PTZ-lever selection decreased, but more male rats (78%) tended to respond on a PTZ lever than OVX (63.6%) or sham female rats (62.5%). Conclusions: Acute nicotine produces anxiety-like behavior similar to that of PTZ in male and female rats, and this effect of nicotine is intensified during ethanol withdrawal in male and OVX rats, but not in sham female rats.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words  m-Chlorophenylpiperazine ; Drug discrimination ; Ethanol withdrawal ; Anxiety ; 17β-estradiol ; Sex difference ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Rationale: The serotonergic system plays a role in regulation of anxiety and ethanol withdrawal (EW). Nevertheless, few studies have assessed sex differences in serotonergic effects on EW. Objectives: This study examined sex differences in the anxiogenic stimu-li induced by a serotonin (5-HT)1b/2 agonist, meta- chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), prior to ethanol and during EW. Methods: Gonadectomized or sham-operated adult male and female rats and 17β-estradiol (2.5 mg, 21-day release, s.c.) -replaced ovariectomized (OVX) rats were trained to discriminate mCPP (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline in a two-lever choice task for food. Latency to the first lever press and mCPP lever selection were measured following mCPP (0–1.2 mg/kg). Rats then received chronic ethanol-containing liquid diet (6.5%) for 10 days and were tested for mCPP lever selection 12 h and 36 h after removal of ethanol. Results: Fewer sham female and β-estradiol-replaced OVX rats selected the mCPP lever than male or OVX rats, and showed an increased initiation latency after mCPP injection. During EW (12 h and 36 h), fewer sham female and β-estradiol-replaced OVX rats responded on the mCPP-lever after saline injection as well as after mCPP challenge than male or OVX rats. Castration did not alter any response of male rats to mCPP. Conclusions: (1) mCPP discrimination is a useful measure of EW in male and female rats; and (2) sham female and β-estradiol-replaced OVX rats are less sensitive to the discriminative stimulus prior to and during EW, but more sensitive to impaired behavioral initiation induced by mCPP than male or OVX rats.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0863-1786
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Es ist gezeigt worden, daß die Gleichung von PAINE, die ursprünglich für die Ausflockung von Solen aufgestellt war, auch auf die Erstarrung von Gallerten anwendbar ist. Bedeutet S den reziproken Wert der Erstarrungszeit einer Gallerte bei einer Elektrolytkonzentration c, dann gilt S = R cp, wo R eine Konstante und p den Stoßfaktor bedeuten. Die Versuche mit Ferriarsenat, Zirkoniumhydroxyd, Ceriliydroxyd und positivem oder negativem Chromiarsenat lassen ausgezeichnete Übereinstimmung zwischen den berechneten und gefundenen Werten von log S erkennen.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0863-1786
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1. Der Einfluß der Verdünnung und der Temperatur auf die Gallertbildung der Sole von Ferriphosphat, Zirkonium- und Aluminiumoxyd ist untersucht worden.
    Additional Material: 6 Tab.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The spacecraft Voyager 1 is at a distance greater than 85 au from the Sun, in the vicinity of the termination shock that marks the abrupt slowing of the supersonic solar wind and the beginning of the extended and unexplored distant heliosphere. This shock is expected to ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Applied crystallography online 33 (2000), S. 614-617 
    ISSN: 1600-5767
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Small-angle neutron scattering was used to study the interactions between AOT/water/decane microemulsions and poly(ethylene oxide)-polyisoprene-poly(ethylene oxide) triblocks. The interdroplet spacing seems to be independent of molecular weight and polymer concentration. Scattering experiments on the polyisoprene layer yield a high q exponent of −1.6 ± 0.1, indicating that the layer is swollen by decane.
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