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  • 2000-2004  (65)
  • 1905-1909  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1534-4681
    Keywords: Sentinel lymph nodes ; Frozen section ; Macrometastases ; Micrometastases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Routine intraoperative frozen section (FS) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) can detect metastatic disease, allowing immediate axillary dissection and avoiding the need for reoperation. Routine FS is also costly, increases operative time, and is subject to false-negative results. We examined the benefit of routine intraoperative FS among the first 1000 patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who had SLN biopsy for breast cancer. Methods: We performed SLN biopsy with intraoperative FS in 890 consecutive breast cancer patients, none of whom had a back-up axillary dissection planned in advance. Serial sections and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins were performed on all SLN that proved negative on FS. The sensitivity of FS was determined as a function of (1) tumor size and (2) volume of metastatic disease in the SLN, and the benefit of FS was defined as the avoidance of a reoperative axillary dissection. Results: The sensitivity of FS ranged from 40% for patients with T1a to 76% for patients with T2 cancers. The volume of SLN metastasis was highly correlated with tumor size, and FS was far more effective in detecting macrometastatic disease (sensitivity 92%) than micrometastases (sensitivity 17%). The benefit of FS in avoiding reoperative axillary dissection ranged from 4% for T1a (6 of 143) to 38% for T2 (45 of 119) cancers. Conclusions: In breast cancer patients having SLN biopsy, the failure of routine intraoperative FS is largely the failure to detect micrometastatic disease. The benefit of routine intraoperative FS increases with tumor size. Routine FS may not be indicated in patients with the smallest invasive cancers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. In order to detect aneuploidy in interphase human lymphocytes, both in vivo and in vitro, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out on binucleated cells cytokinesis-blocked by cytochalasin B at the first mitosis after phytohemagglutinin stimulation. A pericentric chromosome-21-specific DNA probe prepared from yeast artificial chromosome clone 881D2 by the polymerase chain reaction was employed. One thousand binucleated cells per individual were scored from cultures from twelve trisomy 21 patients aged 0.01–8.9 years (mean 4.3 years) and 20 normal children of similar age. Of trisomy 21 patients, increased frequencies of disomic cells in vivo (1.690±1.070%) and cells containing six signals with nondisjunction (0.822±0.554%) were found, compared with those of monosomic 21 cells in vivo (0.265±0.130%) and cells containing four signals with nondisjunction in normal children (0.369±0.250%; P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively). These results show that malsegregation of chromosome 21 occurs more often in trisomic 21 cells than in disomic cells from normal children. The frequency of nondisjunction was significantly higher than the loss of chromosome 21 in both cultured trisomic (0.822±0.554% vs 0.043±0.049%, P=0.000) and disomic (0.369±0.250% vs 0.010±0.030%, P=0.000) cells. Comparisons of in vivo and in vitro data on aneuploidy indicate that a cell selection mechanism may exist in vivo. All these results show that FISH, with a chromosome-specific probe, on binucleated lymphocytes is a powerful tool for simultaneously detecting mosaic cell lines in vivo and malsegregation (loss and nondisjunction) of a corresponding chromosome in vitro in the same cell population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematische Annalen 317 (2000), S. 629-633 
    ISSN: 1432-1807
    Keywords: Mathematics Subject Classification (1991): 20G30
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract. We construct finitely presented subgroups of GL $(n,{\mathbb Z})$ that have infinitely many conjugacy classes of finite subgroups. This answers a question of Grunewald and Platonov. We suggest a variation on their question.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Alzheimer’s disease ; Cerebral amyloid ; angiopathy ; Amyloid β protein ; Neurofibrillary tangles ; Senile plaques
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Amyloid β protein deposition in cortical and leptomeningeal vessels, causing the most common type of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, is found in sporadic and familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is the principal feature in the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Dutch type. The presence of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ɛ4 allele has been implicated as a risk factor for AD and the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in AD. We report clinical, pathological and biochemical studies on two APOE-ɛ4 homozygous subjects, who had senile dementia and whose main neuropathological feature was a severe and diffuse amyloid angiopathy associated with perivascular tau neurofibrillary pathology. Amyloid β protein and ApoE immunoreactivity were observed in leptomeningeal vessels as well as in medium-sized and small vessels and capillaries in the parenchyma of the neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons, and medulla. The predominant peptide form of amyloid β protein was that terminating at residue Val40, as determined by immunohistochemistry, amino acid sequence and mass spectrometry analysis. A crown of tau-immunopositive cell processes was consistently present around blood vessels. DNA sequence analysis of the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene and Presenilin-1 (PS-1) gene revealed no mutations. In these APOE-ɛ4 homozygous patients, the pathological process differed from that typically seen in AD in that they showed a heavy burden of perivascular tau-immunopositive cell processes associated with severe amyloid β protein angiopathy, neurofibrillary tangles, some cortical Lewy bodies and an absence of neuritic plaques. These cases emphasize the concept that tau deposits may be pathogenetically related to amyloid β protein deposition.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The collective electronic oscillator (CEO) approach based on the time-dependent Hartree–Fock approximation is combined with INDO/S, MNDO, AM1, and PM3 semiempirical Hamiltonians. This technique is applied to compute and analyze the static nonlinear polarizabilities of a series of donor/acceptor substituted oligomers. To mimic the experimental conditions, polarizabilities in substituted molecules are calculated for the isolated complex and in a dielectric medium, wherein the solvent contributions are incorporated using the self-consistent reaction field approach. The dielectric environment significantly increases second and third order static polarizabilities and considerably improves the agreement with experimental data. We find that calculated spectroscopic observables agree well with experimental values. We conclude that the CEO/semiempirical approach is an inexpensive and numerically efficient method of computing nonlinear molecular properties. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) experiment is a new, large, low aspect ratio device (R=0.7–0.8 m, a=0.5–0.65 m, maximum BT∼0.63 T at R=0.7 m) operating its first experimental physics campaign. Designed to study a wide variety of plasma shapes with up to 2 MA of plasma current with an aspect ratio down to 1.3, the poloidal field (PF) coils used for plasma formation, equilibrium and shaping are inside the main vacuum vessel. For plasma control and to investigate a wide range of plasma phenomena, an extensive set of magnetic diagnostics have been installed inside the vacuum vessel. More than 600 vacuum compatible, bakeable diagnostic coils are configured in a number of discrete arrays close to the plasma edge with about half the coils installed behind the graphite armour tiles covering the center column. The coil arrays measure the toroidal and poloidal variation in the equilibrium field and its high frequency fluctuating components. Internal coils also measure currents in the PF coils, plasma current, stored energy and induced currents in the mechanical support structures of the coils and graphite armour tiles. The latter measurements are particularly important when halo currents are induced following a plasma termination, for example, when the plasma becomes vertically unstable. The article describes the MAST magnetic diagnostic coil set and their calibration. The way in which coil signals are used to control the plasma equilibrium is described and data from the first MAST experimental campaign presented. These coil data are used as input to the code EFIT [L. Lao et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)], for measurement of halo currents in the vacuum vessel structure and for measurements of the structure of magnetic field fluctuations near the plasma edge. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 406 (2000), S. 695-699 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Knowledge of the evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations throughout the Earth's history is important for a reconstruction of the links between climate and radiative forcing of the Earth's surface temperatures. Although atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in the early ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Cotranslational translocation of proteins across or into membranes is a vital process in all kingdoms of life. It requires that the translating ribosome be targeted to the membrane by the signal recognition particle (SRP), an evolutionarily conserved ribonucleoprotein particle. SRP recognizes ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Axons rely on guidance cues to reach remote targets during nervous system development. A well-studied model system for axon guidance is the retinotectal projection. The retina can be divided into halves; the nasal half, next to the nose, and the temporal half. A subset of retinal axons, those ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Stomata form pores on leaf surfaces that regulate the uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis and the loss of water vapour during transpiration. An increase in the cytosolic concentration of free calcium ions ([Ca2+]cyt) is a common intermediate in many of the ...
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