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  • 1
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The quality of in vivo aroma release measurements of beverages can be improved when a strict protocol is used to control variation in aroma release due to human factors. A trained panel was able to significantly discriminate between aqueous aroma solutions with a concentration difference as low as 17%. This protocol and headspace measurements have been applied to a lemon-lime type beverage with either bulk or lowcalorie intense sweeteners. The ingredients examined did not influence aroma release at concentrations relevant to the beverage industry. Aroma release was only affected by very high concentrations of sucrose.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Macrophages co-incubated with Candida albicans strain CR1 in vitro showed early signs of apoptosis, but evolved to necrosis after 2 h. In this study, we investigated whether strain CR1 caused apoptosis or necrosis of macrophages after its inoculation into mice peritoneal cavity, and whether this correlated with the secretion of IL-10. Peritoneal macrophages from mice that received an inoculum of C. albicans CR1 showed signs of apoptosis and necrosis from 30 min to 2 h afterwards, whereas heat-killed C. albicans did not cause those effects. IL-10 production was low during the first 6 h post-infection, when macrophages predominated in the peritoneal exudate, whereas its higher production after 24 h correlated with an increase of neutrophils in the exudate. Treatment of CR1 with pepstatin (an inhibitor of proteinases) prevented the process of apoptosis and significantly reduced IL-10 production, suggesting that the increased production of IL-10 was caused by processes occurring during the initial phase of infection, such as apoptosis, necrosis and uptake of death cells.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Because previous studies have shown that a high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibited adhesion of Escherichia coli to epithelial cells and coaggregation of oral bacteria, we have examined its effect on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to immobilized human mucus and to erythrocytes. We employed three strains of H. pylori all of which bound to the mucus and agglutinated human erythrocytes via a sialic acid-specific adhesin. The results showed that a high molecular mass constituent derived from cranberry juice inhibits the sialic acid-specific adhesion of H. pylori to human gastric mucus and to human erythrocytes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Salmonella ushB, which encodes a membrane-bound UDP-sugar hydrolase, has an Escherichia coli orthologue (ushBc) which does not detectably produce this activity. In this report, we show that ushBc does not produce any detectable protein either, despite being transcribed normally. Remarkably, ushBc is shown to have 100% sequence identity with E. coli cdh, previously characterised as encoding an active CDP-diglyceride hydrolase, an apparent contradiction with implications regarding enzyme evolution. We suggest that a useful gene designation is cdh (ushBc) rather than either ushBc or cdh, alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction. The prognosis of women with congestive heart failure (CHF) is better than that for men, but the mechanisms underlying the female survival advantage are not well understood. CHF is characterized by profound abnormalities in cardiac autonomic control that contribute to progressive circulatory failure and influence survival.Methods and Results. Time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) indexes were obtained from 24-hour Holter recordings and compared to assess the role of gender in 131 men and 68 women with CHF (mean age 60 ± 13.6 years, range 21 to 87; New York Heart Association Functional Class III [66%] and IV [34%]). Gender-related differences in HRV were observed only in the subset of patients with nonischemic heart failure (55 men and 39 women). Among the time-domain indexes, the SD of the RR intervals (76 ± 5.3 msec vs 55.3 ± 3.2 msec, P 〈 0.0001) and indexes denoting parasympathetic modulation, the percentage of RR intervals with 〉50 msec variation (4.0%± 1.0% vs 6.5%± 1.3%, P = 0.02), and the square root of mean squared differences of successive RR intervals (19.1 ± 3.3 vs 28.4 ± 3.8, P = 0.004) were higher in women. Among the frequency-domain indexes, the total power (7.5 ± 0.13 In-msec2 vs 8.3 ± 0.14 In-msec2, P = 0.0002), the ultralow-frequency power (7.2 ± 0.11 In-msec2 vs 8.0 ± 0.14 In-msec2, P 〈 0.0001), the low-frequency power (3.8 ± 0.25 In-msec2 vs 4.8 ± 0.28 In-msec2, P = 0.006), and the high-frequency power (3.8 ± 0.24 In-msec2, vs 4.6 ± 0.26 In-msec2, P = 0.003) were greater in women than in men.Conclusion. Women with nonischemic CHF have an attenuated sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal compared with men. Gender-based differences in autonomic responses in the setting of CHF may be related to the female survival advantage. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 11, pp. 1071-1077, October 2000)
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1542-474X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: The propensity to develop specific arrhythmias varies between the sexes and is influenced by age. Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have a high prevalence of ventricular ectopy. However, in the setting of CHF, it is not known whether sex-related or age-dependent differences exist in the susceptibility to arrhythmias.Methods: The study population included 134 men and 73 women (mean age 61 ± 14 years) admitted for decompensated CHF. The severity of ventricular arrhythmias was assessed by 24-hour Holter monitoring. None of the patients were on parenteral vasoactive therapy during Holter recording.Results: All measures of ventricular ectopy were markedly lower in women. The average hourly premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), the frequency of ventricular pairs, the mean hourly repetitive ventricular beats, and the frequency of ventricular tachycardia episodes per 24 hours were 40%, 62%, 65%, and 78% lower in women, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of developing 〉 3 ventricular pairs per 24-hour period (OR = 2.2, Cl = 1.1–4.2, P = 0.03), 〉 3 repetitive ventricular beats/hour (OR = 2.5, Cl = 1.2–5.3, P = 0.01), or an episode of ventricular tachycardia (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.2–3.9, P = 0.01) were significantly higher in men. Patients in the higher fertile age group had a higher risk for the presence of 〉 3 ventricular pairs per 24-hour period (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.1–4.2, P = 0.03), and the presence of 〉 3 repetitive ventricular beats per hour (OR = 5.9, CI = 2.7–13.3, P 〈 0.0001), compared with patients in the lower age fertile.Conclusion: Male sex and age are associated with complex ventricular ectopy in patients with CHF. Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in the relative protection conferred by female sex would advance our understanding about arrhythmias in heart failure. A.N.E. 2002;7(3):234–241
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1542-474X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: One of the putative mechanisms for the salutary effects of beta-blockers in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) is their ability to improve autonomic dysfunction. However, patients with profound neurohumoral abnormalities derive little survival benefit from beta-blockers. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of beta-blockers on heart rate variability (HRV) in decompensated CHF.Methods: Time and frequency domain HRV indices were obtained from 24-hour Holter recordings and compared to assess the role of beta-blockade in 199 patients (mean age 60 ± 14 years) with decompensated CHF. Neurohormonal differences were assessed by measuring norepinephrine, endothelin-1, tumor necrosis factor-a, and interleukin-6 in a subset of 64 patients.Results: All HRV indices were markedly suppressed but were substantially higher in patients who were on beta-blockers. Time domain measures of parasympathetic cardiac activity, the percentage of R-R intervals with 〉 50 ms variation (4.9 ± 0.6 vs 7.7 ± 1.2%, P = 0.006) and the square root of mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (22.7 ± 2.0 vs 31.6 ± 4.1 ms, P = 0.004), were higher in the beta-blocker group. Spectral analysis revealed that the total power and the ultra-low frequency power were significantly higher in patients on beta-blockers (82% and 59%, respectively). The high frequency power, a spectral index of parasympathetic modulation, was 41% higher in the beta-blocker group (121 ± 25 vs 171 ± 27 ms2, P = 0.02). Norepinephrine and interleukin-6 levels were substantially lower in patients on beta-blockers (28% and 61%, respectively). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance.Conclusions: Beta-blockers improve the impaired cardiac autonomic regulation during high sympathetic stress of decompensated CHF. This effect may play an important role in protecting the myocardium and preventing arrhythmias during transient increases in sympathetic activity. A.N.E. 2001;6(2):98–106
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