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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study, we examined the effects of a 105 amino acid carboxyl terminal fragment of β-amyloid precursor protein (CT105) and inflammatory cytokines on working memory in rats, by using a three-panel runway set-up. CT105 at 10 nmol/side significantly impaired working memory when it was administered bilaterally into the hippocampus. Furthermore, to elucidate the interaction of CT105 with inflammatory cytokines, we co-administered tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in combination with CT105. Concurrent injections of CT105 (1.0 nmol/side) and TNF-α (100 ng/side) produced a synergistic deficit of working memory, whereas IL-1β (100 ng/side) combined with CT105 (1.0 nmol/side) did not affect the working memory performance. These results indicate that the CT105-induced impairment of working memory is strongly aggravated by an increase in the level of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, which may occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We previously reported that dehydroevodiamine·HCl (DHED) has anticholinesterase and antiamnesic activities. To verify the effects of DHED on cognitive deficits further, we tested it on the scopolamine-induced amnesia model of the rat using the passive avoidance and eight-arm radial maze tests. A single (20 mg/kg p.o.) and repeated (10 mg/kg p.o.) administrations of DHED could significantly reverse the latency time shortened by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) to control level. The impaired spatial working memory induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was also improved significantly by a single injection (6.25 mg/kg i.p.) and repeated administrations of DHED (10 mg/kg p.o.) in the eight-arm radial maze test. In addition, we examined the effects of DHED on the memory impairment and the histological changes of the brain after unilateral electrolytic lesion of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. The cognitive deficits caused by EC lesion and middle cerebral artery occlusion were improved significantly by repeated administrations of DHED (6.25 mg/kg i.p.) after EC lesion or ischemic insult once a day for 7 days in the passive avoidance test. Histological analysis showed that the neuronal loss in the DHED-treated group was notably reduced in the hippocampal area (CA1) of ischemic rats and in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal area (CA1 and CA3) of EC-lesioned rats compared with the nontreated group. The infarction area was decreased significantly by a single administration of DHED (6.25 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before ischemic insult for 6 h. These results suggest that DHED might be an effective drug for not only the Alzheimer’s disease type, but also the vascular type of dementia.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2621
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of sugars (sucrose, glucose and xylose) at different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) on the dynamic rheological properties of gelatine (2% w/w) was investigated during ageing. Storage moduli (G′), when measured at 5 °C, decreased with increasing concentration of added sugar. Xylose was found to induce the greatest reduction in the values of G′. G′ values, measured as a function of ageing time (10 h) at 5 °C, increased rapidly at the initial stage and then reached a pseudoplateau region after long ageing times. Increasing the sugar concentration resulted in a decrease in the pseudoplateau values. The rate constant (K) for structure development of gelatine during ageing was described by apparent first-order kinetics. G′ and K values in gelatine–sugar composites increased in the following order: xylose 〈 glucose 〈 sucrose. The magnitudes of G′ at the end of ageing were much greater than those of G′′, showing a small dependence (slope = 0.005–0.088) on frequency (ω).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  The aim of this study was to identify the salivary components present in the pellicles formed on self-curing resin and to investigate the qualitative variations in adsorbed salivary pellicle compositions according to different exposure time to saliva. Experimental pellicles were formed by the incubation of polymerized resin particles with fresh human parotid or submandibular-sublingual saliva for either 20 min or 2 h. Pellicles were extracted using formic acid and lyophilized, they were then subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify the adsorbed salivary components. The amino acid profiles of the 2 h-pellicles were analysed and compared with those of fresh glandular salivas. There was a difference in the 2 h-pellicle components on the self-curing resin compared with those of other dental materials as well as tooth enamel. The amino acid profiles of the 2 h-pellicles were also different from those of fresh glandular salivas. In the case of submandibular-sublingual saliva, the components of the 2 h-pellicle showed a different pattern compared with those of the 20 min-pellicle. However, there was no significant difference between the components of the 2 h- and 20 min-pellicles in the case of parotid saliva. A distinct difference was found in the surface binding affinities of immunoglobulin (IgA) from different glandular salivas. The findings of this study provide information concerning the initial bacterial adhesion on the surfaces of self-curing resin.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2621
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background We previously reported that ovalbumin–diphtheria toxin (OVA–DT) fusion protein eliminates mast cells bearing OVA-specific IgE and protects OVA-sensitized mice from fatal anaphylaxis induced by OVA challenge.Objective To prove the specificity of therapeutic effect of OVA–DT to allergy induced by OVA only and not by other allergens such as human serum albumin (HSA), and to examine the cytotoxic effect of OVA–DT on B cells bearing OVA-specific IgE.Methods Mice were sensitized with two different antigens, OVA and HSA, and then treated with OVA–DT. The therapeutic effect of OVA–DT on the allergy response to each of allergen was evaluated by anaphylactic test. The effect of OVA–DT on the production of allergen-specific Ig isotypes of the sensitized mice and the cytotoxic effect of OVA–DT on B cells expressing OVA-specific IgE were examined.Results OVA–DT suppressed only OVA-induced allergy but not HSA-induced allergy in mice sensitized with a mixture of OVA and HSA. The suppression was prolonged even to the mice boosted with the same allergen 14 days after last treatment of OVA–DT.In addition, when the sensitized mice were boosted with the same allergens 14 days after last treatment of OVA–DT, the mice showed to increase the production of OVA-specific IgG2a/IgG3 and decreased that of OVA-specific IgE. OVA–DT targeted B cells bearing OVA-specific IgE, and killed them by DT-mediated cytotoxicity.Conclusion The therapeutic effect of OVA–DT was specific to OVA-induced allergy and the suppression of OVA-induced allergy was continuously shown in the mice boosted with the same allergens. This is considered to be caused by the increase of OVA-specific IgG2a and IgG3, and because of the decrease of OVA-specific IgE by killing of B cells bearing OVA-specific IgE.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background A significant proportion of patients diagnosed with cough-variant asthma eventually manifest classic asthma signs, such as wheezing and dyspnoea. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the percentage of eosinophils and/or concentration of eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) in sputum induced from patients with cough-variant asthma can predict the development of classic asthma.Methods Sixty-two children with cough-variant asthma were prospectively studied for 4 years. At the initiation of the study, sputum was induced with hypertonic saline, and the sputum samples were analysed for total and differential cell counts, and for ECP. Each subject was checked clinically at least every 3 months, and details of classic asthma signs experienced during the intervening periods were taken.Results Twenty-four (47.1%) of the 51 subjects available for follow-up developed signs of classic asthma, while 27 did not. The only significant difference in the sputum parameters between these two groups was a higher percentage of sputum eosinophils in subjects who developed classic asthma. A significant association was found between sputum eosinophil percentage and classic asthma development, but not between the concentration of sputum ECP and classic asthma development.Conclusion Sputum eosinophilia in cough-variant asthma may be a correlate of the later development of classic asthma. This suggests that sputum differential cell counts may be useful in the clinical management of patients with cough-variant asthma, as they may enable the prediction of the subsequent classic asthma development.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: The effects of elevated [CO2] on 25 variables describing soybean physiology, growth and yield are reviewed using meta-analytic techniques. This is the first meta-analysis to our knowledge performed on a single crop species and summarizes the effects of 111 studies. These primary studies include numerous soybean growth forms, various stress and experimental treatments, and a range of elevated [CO2] levels (from 450 to 1250 p.p.m.), with a mean of 689 p.p.m. across all studies. Stimulation of soybean leaf CO2 assimilation rate with growth at elevated [CO2] was 39%, despite a 40% decrease in stomatal conductance and a 11% decrease in Rubisco activity. Increased leaf CO2 uptake combined with an 18% stimulation in leaf area to provide a 59% increase in canopy photosynthetic rate. The increase in total dry weight was lower at 37%, and seed yield still lower at 24%. This shows that even in an agronomic species selected for maximum investment in seed, several plant level feedbacks prevent additional investment in reproduction, such that yield fails to reflect fully the increase in whole plant carbon uptake. Large soil containers (〉 9 L) have been considered adequate for assessing plant responses to elevated [CO2]. However, in open-top chamber experiments, soybeans grown in large pots showed a significant threefold smaller stimulation in yield than soybeans grown in the ground. This suggests that conclusions about plant yield based on pot studies, even when using very large containers, are a poor reflection of performance in the absence of any physical restriction on root growth. This review supports a number of current paradigms of plant responses to elevated [CO2]. Namely, stimulation of photosynthesis is greater in plants that fix N and have additional carbohydrate sinks in nodules. This supports the notion that photosynthetic capacity decreases when plants are N-limited, but not when plants have adequate N and sink strength. The root : shoot ratio did not change with growth at elevated [CO2], sustaining the charge that biomass allocation is unaffected by growth at elevated [CO2] when plant size and ontogeny are considered.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The haemodynamic effects of a continuous infusion of milrinone without an initial bolus dose were evaluated in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. After internal mammary artery harvest, milrinone 0.5 μg.min−1.kg−1 (29 patients) or a normal saline infusion (33 patients) was started and continued until all graft anastomoses were completed. Haemodynamic variables were recorded before application of the tissue stabiliser, at 1, 3, 5 and 10 min after the application of the stabiliser, and after its removal. The administration of a milrinone infusion was associated with a smaller decrease in cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation during all the coronary artery anastomoses, with no severe complications and a decreased dose of norepinephrine infused to maintain systemic arterial pressure.
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