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  • 1
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is one of the active principles contained in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae), a herb that has been used widely in China to treat vascular disorders.2. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action of TMP, the effect of TMP on intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) was investigated in cultured vascular smooth muscle (A7r5) cells using the Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura-2 as an indicator.3. The increase in [Ca2+]i in A7r5 cells produced by vasopressin (1 µmol/L) or phenylephrine (1 µmol/L) was attenuated by TMP in a concentration-dependent manner. Only inhibitors specific to ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels or small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SKCa) channels attenuated the action of TMP (10 µmol/L) on [Ca2+]i. However, blockers of other K+ channels failed to modify the inhibitory action of TMP (10 µmol/L) on [Ca2+]i.4. The action of TMP on membrane potential in A7r5 cells was monitored by the fluorescence of bisoxonol. Tetramethylpyrazine caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of changes in membrane potential elicited by KCl (20 mmol/L) or phenylephrine (1 µmol/L), an effect that was totally reversed by glibenclamide (100 µmol/L) and apamin (100 nmol/L) in combination.5. The results obtained indicate that the decrease in [Ca2+]i in A7r5 cells produced by TMP is mediated mainly by opening of KATP and/or SKCa channels.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Sulphotransferases are a superfamily of enzymes involved in both detoxification and bioactivation of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The arylsulphotransferase SULT1A1 has been implicated in a decreased activity and thermostability when the wild-type arginine at position 213 of the coding sequence is substituted by a histidine. SULT1A1 is the isoform primarily associated with the conversion of dietary N-OH arylamines to DNA binding adducts and is therefore of interest to determine whether this polymorphism is linked to colorectal cancer.2. Genotyping, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, was performed using DNA samples of healthy control subjects (n = 402) and patients with histologically proven colorectal cancer (n = 383). Both control and test populations possessed similar frequencies for the mutant allele (32.1 and 31%, respectively; P = 0.935). Results were not altered when age and gender were considered as potential confounders in a logistic regression analysis.3. Examination of the sulphonating ability of the two allozymes with respect to the substrates p-nitrophenol and paracetamol showed that the affinity and rate of sulphonation was unaffected by substitution of arginine to histidine at position 213 of the amino acid sequence.4. From this study, we conclude that the SULT1A1 R213H polymorphism is not linked with colorectal cancer in this elderly Australian population.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Melbourne, Australia : Blackwell Science Pty
    Nephrology 7 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Melbourne, Australia : Blackwell Science Pty
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Background:  The purpose of this study is to investigate the current trends of Taiwanese urologists in managing prostate cancer (CaP). This will help us to establish our own consensus and recommend appropriate treatment options to the related patients.Methods:  From November 2000 to April 2001, a questionnaire concerning the alertness of detecting CaP, diagnostic tools used for establishing the staging of CaP before radical surgery, the tolerated age for surgery and the use of hormone therapy for advanced CaP was mailed to the 465 urologists in active practice in the Taiwan area.Results:  A total of 240 (51.6%) physicians responded to our questionnaire. 89.1% of the respondents would add serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) to detect suspected malignancy during the work-up for benign prostatic hyperplasia in their daily practice. About three quarters of the respondents adopted free/total PSA in assisting the decision for prostate biopsy. 78% require a bone scan before radical surgery even when PSA is less than 10 ng/mL and the age tolerated for radical surgery is 75 years. 60.8% still believed that maximal androgen blockade is effective for advanced CaP.Conclusions:  The trend of treating CaP provides a useful insight into the variations in clinical practice of Taiwanese urologists and may help to develop a more widely accepted guideline by our urological community.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We report a carcinosarcoma within a bladder diverticulum together with a review of 18 previously reported cases of intradiverticular sarcomas and carcinosarcomas with respect to their clinical features, treatments and outcomes. Frequent deaths with intra-abdominal recurrences suggest the need for total cystectomy, rather than diverticulectomy.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Morphine and opiate narcotics are potent analgesics that have a high propensity to induce tolerance and physical dependence following their repeated administration.2. The molecular basis of opiate dependence has not been completely elucidated, although the participation of opioid receptors is a prerequisite. Cellular dependence on opioids is believed to result from the chronic stimulation of opioid-regulated signalling networks.3. As G-protein-coupled receptors, the opioid receptors must rely on heterotrimeric G-proteins for signal transduction. Recent advances in our understanding of G-protein signalling have unveiled novel signalling molecules and mechanisms, some of which may be intricately involved in the manifestation of opiate dependence.4. In the present review, we will attempt to trace chronic opioid signals along elaborate G-protein-regulated pathways.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Pty
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Melbourne, Australia : Blackwell Science Pty
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Throughout most of life, males have higher average blood pressures than females. This sexual dichotomy may be related to genetic factors including the X and Y sex chromosomes and genes that control sex steroids. Resultant physiological differences between men and women may also be relevant to the quantitative variation of blood pressure within the sexes.2. The present overview collates our published and novel sex-related genetic data in relation to blood pressure from the Victorian Family Heart Study. These include a multipoint quantitative linkage analysis of the X chromosome and genetic association studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the Y chromosome and genes encoding the androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor α (ERα), 5α-reductase types I and II (SRD5A1 and SRD5A2) and aromatase (CYP19).3. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was linked (Z = 3.3, genome-wide P 〈 0.05) to a region of the X chromosome that encompassed the AR gene and the Y chromosome was associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP; P = 0.03). In new analyses, we observed a possible association between a SNP in AR and DBP in 369 males (84.5 vs 82.1 mmHg for genotype A vs genotype B, respectively; P = 0.06) and a significant association between haplotypes of the Y chromosome and AR SNP in males (P = 0.01) with a difference of nearly 6 mmHg DBP between extreme groups. Associations were also observed for polymorphisms of SRD5A1 and ERα with DBP and SBP in males, respectively.4. The findings indicate that genes related to sexual phenotypes may be relevant to the normal variation in blood pressure, even within the sexes. Further genetic and physiological analyses will be required to confirm these observations and to determine the mechanisms of action and the nature of any interactions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background and Aims:  Individuals are prone to disease because of certain disease-susceptible genes. The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D), the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, M235T, and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR) gene, A1166C, polymorphisms have been associated with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and its progression. Several studies on Caucasians and Japanese patients have reported contradictory results. We determined these polymorphisms in 118 Chinese patients with IgAN and 94 healthy Chinese subjects to assess their clinical impact.Methods:  Genotyping was performed with DNA isolated from peripheral leucocytes, polymerase chain reaction amplification of the polymorphic sequence, restriction enzymes digestion, and separation and identification of DNA fragments. Clinical data at renal biopsy and final status on renal function were determined from patients’ records.Results:  Comparing all IgAN patients with controls, AGT and ATR genotype distributions were similar, whereas there was a significant increase in the ACE DD genotype (P 〈 0.05). When comparing patients with end-stage renal failure (IgAN-ESRF) and those without (IgAN-nonESRF), there was no difference among the three gene polymorphisms. In contrast, there were significant differences in higher male prevalence (P 〈 0.05), increased serum creatinine at presentation (P 〈 0.05), more sclerosis (P 〈 0.01) and higher tubulointerstitial lesion score (P 〈 0.001) in the IgAN-ESRF group.Conclusion:  Among the ACE, AGT and ATR gene polymorphisms, only the DD genotype may predispose the individual to IgAN in the Chinese population. None are significant for prognosticating ESRF.
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