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  • Springer  (3)
  • The Company of Biologists
  • German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
  • 2000-2004  (3)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  Infection with measles virus induces a transient immunosuppression, which occasionally results in fatal opportunistic infections. To obtain fundamental information about the mechanism, we examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from acute measles patients aged from infants to 35 years old, obtained at various times from incubation periods to 103 days after onset of rash, for the number of lymphocyte subsets by flowcytometry. The data were analyzed for relationships between aging of the patients and the severity of immunosuppression. In classical measles cases, infected lymphocytes detected as a minor pupulation during the incubation period disappeared soon after onset of rash, whereas in the cases of serious illness, the infected cells persisted longer after the rash. At the onset of rash, remarkable lymphopenia had already occurred in all measles cases with reduction in cell numbers of CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, B cells, neutrophils, and monocytes. In contrast, natural killer (NK) cells were increased in number and activated, which might be a response compensatory for the lymphopenia. Apoptosis-associated molecules such as CD95(Fas) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-receptor (TRAIL-R) were highly expressed on the cell surface of most surviving non-infected lymphocytes, and DNA fragmentation was also observed upon incubation in vitro. These results suggested that the profound lymphopenia was primarily due to extended death of non-infected blood cells caused by apoptosis. The severity and duration of the lumphopenia were age-dependent; less severe in young children whereas much severer in infants under one year of age as well as adolescents and adults. From these results, it was suggested that remarkable lymphopenia due to apoptosis of uninfected cells is one of the principal causes for immunosuppression induced by measles virus infection, and is correlated with the age-dependent severity of the disease.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The characteristics of regulation of the gene encoding the third xylanase (Xyn III) of a filamentous fungus, Trichoderma reesei PC-3–7, were studied by Northern blot analysis. A partial DNA sequence (185 bp) of the xyn3 gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA of T. reesei PC-3–7 and sequenced. This xyn3 gene fragment was used as a probe for Southern and Northern blot analysis. The expression of the xyn3 gene was regulated at the transcriptional level. The xyn3 mRNA was expressed in mycelia of T. reesei PC-3–7 induced by Avicel, l-sorbose and sophorose, but not by xylose, xylooligosaccharides and birchwood xylan. Furthermore, it was observed that xyn3 was synchronously expressed with egl1 but not with xyn1 and xyn2 by l-sorbose, indicating that the xyn3 gene may be coordinately expressed with cellulase genes. By Southern blot analysis, the xyn3 gene was confirmed to exist as a single copy in both strains of T. reesei PC-3–7 and QM9414. However, no xyn3 mRNA appeared in the mycelia induced by any kind of inducers in T. reesei QM9414 even when total RNA was used in large excess, suggesting that the xyn3 gene in T. reesei QM9414 is in the dormant state and cannot be expressed. Therefore, T. reesei PC-3–7 may be a very useful strain for elucidating the induction mechanism of xylanase biosynthesis by cellulosic and xylanosic substrates, and also the regulatory correlation between cellulase and xylanase induction.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Keywords: Key words Decay-accelerating factor ; Transmembrane ; Glycosylphosphatidylinositol ; Complement ; Alternative splicing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Several cDNA clones encoding genetic homologues of human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) were isolated from rat testis cDNA libraries and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products. Sequence analysis revealed that rat DAF exists as two membrane forms, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and a transmembrane (TM) form. Southern blotting analysis showed that GPI- and TM-form mRNAs of rat DAF are derived from a single gene, as is the case for guinea pig, though both forms of mouse DAF mRNA are derived from two genes. Gene analysis of the C-terminal region of rat DAF indicated that both forms of mRNA are presumably generated by alternative splicing of exons which encode a GPI/3′-untranslated (3′UT) region and a TM/3′UT region in the 3′ end of the Ser/Thr-rich region. Northern blot analysis indicated that rat GPI-DAF mRNA was present in all tissues examined except for liver, while rat TM-DAF mRNA was preferentially expressed in testis. Infant rat testis barely expressed TM-DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) but highly expressed 5I2 antigen (5I2Ag, rat Crry). However, adult rat testis showed increased expression of the 1.6-kb transcript of rat GPI-DAF, TM-DAF, MCP, and the 0.7-kb transcript of CD59, with a decreased level of 5I2Ag expression. These results suggest that rat 5I2Ag/Crry may play an important role in regulating complement activation during the early stages of testis development, and that DAF, MCP, and CD59 expressed in testis may enable sperm to survive complement attack in the mucus of the female genital organ, and/or to interact with an ovum.
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