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  • Articles  (8)
  • 2000-2004  (8)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A ‘test and treat’ strategy is advocated for patients with dyspepsia under the age of 45 years, with endoscopy reserved for those with alarm symptoms or aged over 45 years. One of the consequences of this strategy will be a reduction in population infection rates of Helicobacter pylori. It is now clear that H. pylori is one of the prime initiators of gastric cancer with up to 70% of gastric cancers attributable to H. pylori. What remains unclear is if H. pylori reduction will lead to a reduction in gastric cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, (SIDS) or cot death, remains the most common category of post-perinatal death in the UK. By definition, the cause of death is unknown, but a long-standing theory is that some of these deaths could be the result of anaphylaxis.Objective To investigate the potential contribution of anaphylactic mechanisms to deaths in infancy by determining relative levels of α- and β-tryptases and both total and allergen-specific IgE in sera from groups of infants whose deaths were attributed to SIDS or to other causes.Methods Serum samples were collected at the time of post-mortem examination from infants whose death was classed as SIDS (n = 40) and from a comparison group in which cause of death had been established (n = 32). Serum tryptase concentrations were measured with a radioimmunoassay with monoclonal antibody G5 which detects primarily β-tryptase or an ELISA with antibody AA5 which has equal sensitivity for α- and β-tryptases. Levels of total IgE and IgE specific for casein, β-lactoglobulin, house dust mite and moulds were determined.Results Analysis of the results of the two assays for tryptase indicated that levels of the β-like tryptase (the form secreted on anaphylactic degranulation) were significantly higher in serum from infants with SIDS compared with those whose death was explained. There was no evidence for an increase in serum levels of α-tryptase (the variant secreted constitutively from mast cells). Total levels of serum IgE did not differ between the two groups and, reflecting the low circulating IgE concentrations in infancy, an elevation in IgE specific for the panel of allergens was not detected.Conclusions In a proportion of SIDS victims there may be increased serum levels of β-like tryptase, a marker for anaphylaxis. The failure to detect an increase in α-tryptase would suggest that mast cell hyperplasia is not a feature of cot death. The nature of the inciting agents remains unclear, but anaphylaxis deserves serious consideration as a possible cause of sudden death in infancy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: This study was designed to examine the effect of passive sensitization (PS) on human bronchial mast cells. PS with asthmatic serum induces a hyper-responsiveness to nonspecific agonists, and immunoglobulin (Ig)E binding mainly on mast cells.Methods:  Bronchi dissected out from 19 lung specimens were incubated in normal or asthmatic serum. Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) directed against tryptase, chymase, or c-kit. Mast cells were classified as fully granulated (type I), partly (type II) or largely degranulated (type III). Tryptase was measured in supernatant using ELISA. Contractile response was recorded in a separated set of experiments using an organ bath system.Results:  PS decreased both tryptase positive cells (47.9 ± 10.0 vs. 26.7 ± 4.8 cell/mm2, P = 0.003) and chymase positive cells (26.1 ± 3.3 vs. 14.9 ± 1.8 cell/mm2, P = 0.01), but did not alter the number of c-kit positive cell. PS decreased the proportion of type I (55.4 vs. 28.9%, P 〈 0.0001) and, concomitantly increased that of types II (23.2 vs. 41.0%, P 〈 0.0001) and III (21.4 vs. 30.1%, P = 0.04). Following PS, tryptase concentration significantly increased and the magnitude of histamine response, was correlated with the amount of type II mast cells.Conclusion:  PS of human isolated bronchi induces a mast cell degranulation related to in vitro hyper-responsiveness, along with a tryptase release.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science, Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The role of Helicobacter pylori infection in nonulcer dyspepsia remains controversial. To date studies exploring the effect of H. pylori eradication on symptoms have reported conflicting results. Randomised control trials employing validated outcome measures have also been difficult to interpret because of several important issues such as the large placebo response seen in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia and both the natural variability in symptoms and symptom severity with time. The association of symptom improvement with resolution of gastritis has meant that the length of follow up employed in most studies has been insufficient. We report the findings of a randomised placebo controlled trial (n = 100), using a validated symptom questionnaire and 5 year follow up to determine the effect of H. pylori eradication on symptoms in nonulcer dyspepsia. In all 64 that were reviewed at 5 years there was a significant difference between patients who were H. pylori negative and those who remained positive with regard to complete symptom resolution, consumption of relevant medications and peptic ulcer disease development, in favour of active treatment. There was a trend for gradual symptom improvement over time irrespective of H. pylori status, which may reflect the natural history of this condition. For those who remained symptomatic at 5 years, there was no difference in symptom severity based on H. pylori status. The findings of this study support the use of H. pylori eradication in symptomatic patients with nonulcer dyspepsia both to induce symptom resolution and to prevent disease progression.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Gastric antral vascular ectasia, or ‘watermelon stomach’, is a rare but important cause of gastrointestinal blood loss and anaemia, which has characteristic endoscopic and histological features. The pathogenesis of this condition remains unclear; however, many associated disorders have been documented. Various medical, surgical and endoscopic therapeutic modalities have been attempted with variable success. Leading contenders for the therapeutic modality of choice include hormonal therapy, endoscopic Nd:YAG laser and argon plasma coagulation. Randomized controlled trials to identify the ideal treatment method are lacking at present.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter pylori are well-recognized causes of gastroduodenal mucosal damage. This damage is mediated through the effects of both agents on acid secretion, neutrophil activity and function, and prosta- glandin metabolism. Clinical trials on the interrelation- ship between H. pylori, NSAIDs and gastroduodenal mucosal injury have yielded conflicting results. No consensus has been reached on what recommenda- tions should be implemented with regard to H. pylori eradication in patients on long-term NSAID therapy. At present, the presence of H. pylori is identified at endoscopy and eradication is carried out in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients remain a dilemma that requires further investigation. Clinical practice will continue to be tailored to a patient's individual requirements. Therefore, in patients at risk of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and on NSAID therapy, acid suppression therapy should be prescribed.
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