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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To evaluate the technical feasibility, safety, and short-term efficacy of botulinum toxin injection for pancreatic sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and to analyse whether the symptomatic response to botulinum toxin might be a predictor of outcome for endoscopic sphincterotomy.〈section xml:id="abs1-2"〉〈title type="main"〉Methods:Fifteen consecutive patients (nine female, aged 38 ± 12 years) with frequent attacks (median four) of acute pancreatitis within 6 months, and manometrically proven pancreatic sphincter of Oddi dysfunction underwent endoscopic injection of 100 units of botulinum toxin into the major papilla. All patients underwent prospective follow-up thereafter and in cases of recurrent pancreatitis manometry this was repeated and pancreatic sphincterotomy was performed.〈section xml:id="abs1-3"〉〈title type="main"〉Results:No side-effects occurred after botulinum toxin injection in any patient. Within 3 months after botulinum toxin treatment, 12 out of 15 patients remained asymptomatic (80% primary response). Only one out of three patients without symptomatic benefit showed continued elevated pancreatic sphincter pressure at manometry and only this patient benefited from pancreatic sphincterotomy later on. Eleven of the 12 patients initially responding to botulinum toxin injection developed a symptomatic relapse 6 ± 2 months after botulinum toxin treatment. These patients then achieved long-term clinical remission from pancreatic or combined (biliary and pancreatic, n=5) sphincterotomy (median follow-up, 15 months).〈section xml:id="abs1-4"〉〈title type="main"〉Conclusion:Endoscopic botulinum toxin injection into the papilla of Vater is a safe procedure for treatment of pancreatic sphincter of Oddi dysfunction that may provide short-term relief in about 80% of the patients. Those patients who respond to botulinum toxin may subsequently gain definitive cure from sphincterotomy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Polymer blends ; Thin films ; Topography ; Polystyrene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract  Thin films of blends of polystyrene (PS) and poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) were prepared by spin-casting onto silicon wafers in order to map the lateral distribution of the two polymers. The surfaces were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) secondary ion mass spectroscopy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Films with PBMA contents of 50% w/w or less were relatively smooth, but further increase in the PBMA content produced, initially, protruding PS ribbons and then, for PBMA ≥80% w/w, isolated PS islands. At all concentrations the topmost surface (0.5–1.0 nm) was covered by PBMA, whilst the PBMA concentration in the near-surface region, measured by XPS, increased with bulk content to eventual saturation. PEEM measurements of a PS–PBMA film at the composition at which ribbon features were observed by AFM also showed a PS-rich ribbon structure surrounded by a sea of mainly PBMA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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