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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta receive a prominent serotonin (5-HT) projection from the dorsal raphe nucleus and important functional interactions between the serotonergic and the dopaminergic system have been postulated. In the present report we examined the role of 5-HT in the modulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (mGluR-IPSC) in midbrain dopamine neurons, and we found a reversible depression of this synaptic response at concentrations of 5-HT ranging from 100 nm to 30 µm (EC50 1.06 µm). This resulted in a shift towards excitation of the overall dopamine neuron response to glutamatergic synaptic input. This effect was not because of a direct modulation of the Ca2+-sensitive K+ conductances underlying the mGluR-IPSC, but was associated with a decrease in the intracellular calcium signal triggered by mGluR stimulation. Similar results were obtained with α-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-methoxytryptamine, but not with 5-carboxamidotryptamine or 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine. No significant depression of the mGluR-IPSC by 5-HT was observed in the presence of the 5-HT2 antagonist cinanserin or the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist RS 23597–190, whereas the 5-HT2C antagonist RS 102221 was ineffective. Our results demonstrate a powerful inhibition of the mGluR-IPSC by 5-HT in midbrain dopamine neurons, most probably through stimulation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: isochores ; GC composition ; telomeres ; warm-blooded vertebrates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract We have hybridized the vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n on DNA compositional fractions from 13 mammalian species and 3 avian species, representing 9 and 3 orders, respectively. Our results indicate that the 50- to 100-kb fragments derived from telomeric regions are composed of GC-rich and GC-richest isochores. Previous works from our laboratory demonstrated that single-copy sequences from the human H3 isochore family (the GC-richest and gene-richest isochore in the human genome) share homology with compositionally correlated compartments of warm-blooded vertebrates. This correlation suggested that the GC-richest isochores are, as in the human genome, the gene-richest regions of warm-blooded vertebrates' genome. Moreover, this evidence suggests that telomeric regions are the most gene-dense region of all warm-blooded vertebrates. The implications of these findings are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Keywords: Amino acids ; Striatum ; Electrophysiology ; Metabotropic glutamate receptors ; Excitotoxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. The effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation were studied in medium spiny neurons and large aspiny (LA) interneurons by means of electrophysiological and optical recordings. DCG-IV and L-SOP, agonists for group II and III mGluRs, respectively, produced a presynaptic inhibitory effect on corticostriatal glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in both spiny and LA cells. Activation of group I mGluRs by the selective agonist 3,5-DHPG produced no effect on membrane properties and glutamatergic transmission in spiny neurons, whereas it did cause a membrane depolarization in LA interneurons coupled to increased input resistance. In combined optical and electrophysiological experiments, in spiny neurons 3,5-DHPG enhanced membrane depolarization and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels induced by NMDA applications, but not in LA interneurons. These data suggest the existence of a positive interaction between NMDA and group I mGlu receptors only in medium spiny cells which might, at least partially, account for the differential vulnerability to excitotoxic damage observed in striatal neuronal subtypes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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