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  • 1
    ISSN: 1399-3038
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated prevalence and determinants of asthma and allergic diseases in a cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren aged 6–14 in 2002. This was the third of a series of cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 1992 and 1997, in the same school in Ankara, Turkey. Questionnaire including information on house characteristics, dietary habits, past and current exposures and diseases were distributed to 1064 children (523 boys, 541 girls) and filled by the parents at home. Percentage of children having a pet was significantly higher (1992: 7.9, 1997: 22.9, 2002: 21), but that of passive smoking was significantly lower (1992: 74, 1997: 64, 2002: 64.1) in 1997 and 2002 when compared with 1992. Current prevalence percentage of asthma (1992: 8.3, 1997: 9.8, 2002: 6.4), wheeze (1992: 11.9, 1997: 13.3, 2002: 6.4), hay fever (1992: 15.4, 1997: 14.1, 2002: 7.2), and eczema (1992: 4, 1997: 4.3, 2002: 1.8) were significantly lower in 2002 compared with 1992. Multiple logistic regression analysis model for current wheeze included ingestion of cow's milk (no regular ingestion: reference, ORs and 95% CIs, 〈1 glass/day: 0.5, 0.3–1.0; at least 1 glass/day: 0.3, 0.2–0.7), ingestion of red meat (2.2, 1.2–3.8), and currently holding a dog (6.1, 1.6–23.4). Multiple logistic regression analysis model for current hay fever included ingestion of red meat (1.8, 1.1–2.9) and father's education (none of the parents finished secondary school: reference, secondary school to university: 0.5, 0.2–1.0). Our findings suggested that current prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases decreased among schoolchildren in Ankara, in the last 10 yr, and ingestion of milk and red meat could have a role in the occurrence of asthma and hay fever. Detailed assessment of dietary habits is required to test this hypothesis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2230
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A possible link between superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde level with the clinical manifestations of rosacea was investigated. We found differences in superoxide dismutase activities between mild rosacea (stages I and II) and severe involvement (stage III) groups, as well as between disease and control groups that were statistically significant (P 〈 0.05). In the mild involvement group (stages I and II), the superoxide dismutase activity was higher than in the control group (P 〈 0.05), while the malondialdehyde levels did not differ from the control. In the severe involvement group (stage III), the superoxide dismutase activity was lower than in the control group (P 〈 0.05), and this was coupled to a raised level of malondialdehyde (P 〈 0.05). These findings clearly show that in the mild involvement phase of rosacea patients, superoxide dismutase activity was stimulated to protect the skin against reactive oxygen species so that the malondialdehyde levels were maintained. In contrast, in more severe disease, due to a decrease in the capacity of the antioxidant defence system, the malondialdehyde levels were increased. These findings support the ‘antioxidant system defect hypothesis’ in rosacea patients.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Although the use of opioids during general anaesthesia suppresses stress response to surgery and pain, the effects on antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are controversial. The aim of this study was to find the effects of morphine with either intravenous infusion or epidural route on ADH and other stress hormones.Methods: Fifty children aging (1–15 years) undergoing major genito-urinary or abdominal operations were included in this study. The patients were allocated randomly to two groups receiving either a single dose of epidural morphine 0.1 mg·kg−1 (EP group, n = 25) postinduction or morphine infusion (INF group; n = 25) at 0.02 mg·kg−1·h−1 following 0.05 mg·kg−1 bolus. Blood samples were withdrawn for plasma ADH, osmolality, glucose, cortisol, insulin and morphine level analysis following induction and 1, 5, 12 and 24 h after initial morphine administration.Results: The two groups were similar in demographic factors, pain scores, sedation scores, and incidence of nausea and vomiting. The amount of morphine received was different between groups and the changes in serum levels of morphine were statistically significant in EP group ( P 〈 0.05). The changes in cortisol, blood glucose and insulin levels were insignificant in both groups (P 〉 0.05). The changes of ADH levels were significant at time-points in both groups, reaching control levels at the 24th hour (P 〈 0.05).Conclusion: Despite the effective pain therapy and suppression of cortisol and insulin response to surgical stimulus, the increase in ADH secretion is not effected by systemic or epidural morphine administration.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food quality 25 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Changes of biogenic amine (histamine, β-phenylethylamine, serotonin, spermine, spermidine, cadaverine, putresine, 1,7-diamino heptane, tryptamine and tyramine) concentrations and pH values of Turkish style sausages were investigated during ripening and storage. Cadaverine and β-phenylethylamine were not detected during the ripening and storage periods for all sausage types. Storage time had a significant (P〈0.05) effect on the formation of all biogenic amines. Starter culture usage decreased (P〈0.05) biogenic amine formation. Histamine levels were higher in sausages prepared without additives and lower in the sausages made with starter culture than the sausages made without starter culture. There was no effect of starter culture and additives on formation of tryptamine, 1,7-diamino heptane, serotonin or spermidine. Starter culture and additives affected (P〈0.05) the formation histamine, putrescine and spermine. pH values of sausages sharply decreased (P〈 0.05) from 5.98 to about 4.53 during 3 days of ripening. After that, pH values increased slowly and were nearly constant during the storage period.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1439-0264
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study was designed to reveal, in detail, the features of the auditory ossicles of the New Zealand rabbit, one of the most frequently used animals in scientific researches. Heads of 10 dead adult New Zealand rabbits of both sexes weighing 2.5 ± 0.2 kg were used in the study. The auditory ossicles were gently removed from their situs and observed. The auditory ossicles were three small bones: the malleus, the incus and the stapes. The lenticular bone seemed to be the lenticular process, as is in human beings. In general, macroanatomic features of the bones were similar to those reported in the literature. Findings in this study, however, differed greatly, especially in detail. There were statistically significant differences in the morphometric data of the features of the auditory ossicles between the right- and left-hand sides. Data from the right-hand side were significantly higher.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : We aimed to investigate effects of low dose ketamine before induction on propofol anesthesia for children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods : Forty-three children aged 9 days to 7 years, undergoing elective MRI were randomly assigned to receive intravenously either a 2.5 mg·kg−1 bolus of propofol followed by an infusion of 100 μg·kg−1·min−1 or a 1.5 mg·kg−1 bolus of propofol immediately after a 0.5 mg·kg−1 bolus of ketamine followed by an infusion of 75 μg·kg−1·min−1. If a child moved during the imaging sequence, a 0.5–1 mg·kg−1 bolus of propofol was given. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation and respiratory rates were monitored. Apnea, the requirement for airway opening maneuvers, secretions, nausea, vomiting and movement during the imaging sequence were noted. Recovery times were also recorded.Results : Systolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased significantly in the propofol group, while blood pressure did not change and heart rate decreased less in the propofol-ketamine group. Apnea associated with desaturation was observed in three patients of the propofol group. The two groups were similar with respect to requirements for airway opening maneuvers, secretions, nausea-vomiting, movement during the imaging sequence and recovery time.Conclusions : Intravenous administration of low dose ketamine before induction and maintenance with propofol preserves hemodynamic stability without changing the duration and the quality of recovery compared with propofol alone.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Pain treatment is one of the main concerns of paediatric anaesthesiologists. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the quality of analgesia and stress suppression by morphine when used [epidural (single shot) (EP) or with intravenous (i.v.) for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in children]. Methods: Forty-four children, aged 5–15 years, and who were undergoing major genitourinary or lower abdominal surgery with a standardized general anaesthesia technique, were included in this study. In the EP group (n=24) 0.1 mg·kg–1 morphine in 0.2 ml·kg–1 saline were given epidurally at the L3–4 level and in the PCA group (n=20) 0.1 mg·kg–1 morphine was given i.v. immediately after intubation. Postoperative PCA bolus doses were 0.5 mg for patients weighing less than 20 kg, 1 mg for children weighing 20–30 kg and 1.5 mg for children weighing 30–40 kg. Blood samples were withdrawn following induction and at 1, 8, 12 and 24 h after morphine administration for measurement of blood glucose, insulin, cortisol and morphine levels. Patients were observed for 24 h postoperatively; heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, FACES pain scores, sedation scores and complications were recorded. Results: The PCA group received 0.56 ± 0.33 mg·kg–1·day–1 morphine. The FACES pain scores, sedation scores, cortisol, blood glucose and insulin levels were similar in both groups. Haemodynamic and respiratory evaluations and cortisol levels were stable but blood glucose and insulin changes at certain time periods were significant (P 〈 0.05). Serum morphine levels and incidence of vomiting were different between groups (P 〈 0.05). Serum morphine levels were similar at the first hour. Conclusions: Both techniques provided sufficient pain relief and attenuated the hormonal response without life-threatening complications.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We compared the effects of pre- and postsurgical axillary block on pain after hand and forearm surgery in 55 children in a double-blind randomized study. The successful blocks are reported here (n=49). Children aged 1–11 years and ASA I or II were allocated randomly to receive axillary block with 2 mg.kg−1 of 0.25% bupivacaine, either after induction but before the surgery (presurgical group, n=25) or immediately after surgery, before the end of anaesthesia (postsurgical, n=24). In all patients, a standard general anaesthesia technique was used. The Faces Pain Scale (FPS) and analgesic requirements were recorded for 24 h at various times after operation. Eight patients (32%) in the presurgical group and 20 patients (83.33%) in the postsurgical group did not require additional analgesic within the first 24 h after operation (P〈 0.05). In patients who had pain during the observation period, the pain started 13.66±2.61 h in the presurgical group and 13.14±2.34 h in the postsurgical group after performing block (P〉 0.05). The FPS scores were similar in both groups during the first 8 h in the postoperative period (P〉 0.05). There was a significant difference at 10 h after surgery (P〈 0.05). Cumulative FPS score was higher in the presurgical group (10.50±1.06) than in the postsurgical group (9.45±1.28) (P〈 0.05), but both groups had effective analgesia overall, the mean FPS score being less than 2. Additional analgesic consumption was similar in these patients in both groups. A lower isoflurane concentration was used in the presurgical group (0.68%vs 1.72%, P〈 0.001). We did not demonstrate the superiority of preemptive analgesia, but our results indicate that presurgical axillary block with 0.25% bupivacaine allows the use of inhalational anaesthetics at lower concentrations while providing a reasonably painless postoperative period.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background : Thoracotomy causes severe pain in the postoperative period. The aim was to evaluate effectiveness of two pain treatment methods with morphine on postthoracotomy pain and stress response.Methods : Thirty-two children undergoing major thoracotomy for noncardiac thoracic surgery were allocated to receive either single dose of thoracic epidural morphine 0.1 mg·kg−1 in 0.2 ml·kg−1 saline (TEP group, n = 16) or morphine infusion at 0.02 mg·kg−1 h−1 (INF group, n = 16) following bolus dose of 0.05 mg·kg−1 postinduction. Pain and sedation scores and incidence of complications were recorded for 24 h and cortisol, blood glucose, insulin and morphine serum levels were evaluated following induction, 1, 8, 12, and 24 h after initial morphine administration.Results : Five patients in TEP and one in INF required rescue morphine. The cortisol, insulin and blood glucose increased during the study and returned to normal levels at 24th hour (P 〈 0.05), similarly in both groups (P 〉 0.05). The morphine levels were variable within and between groups (P 〈 0.05). A common complication was nausea and vomiting with both the techniques (P 〉 0.05).Conclusion : Single dose TEP morphine offers no advantage over INF for pain treatment for thoracotomy in children and neither technique provided suppression of stress hormones in the first 24 h postoperatively.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1468-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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