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  • 2000-2004  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Hypomagnesaemia ; Tetany ; Calcitriol ; Nasogastric infusion ; Calcium metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Primary infantile hypomagnesaemia is an infrequent cause of neonatal hypocalcaemic seizures but one that responds well to magnesium supplementation. We describe a 22-year-old male, first reported at 4 months of age, who is currently free of neurological deficit but has suffered from intermittent hypomagnesaemic tetany and chronic diarrhoea due to large oral magnesium supplements. Hypothesizing that modest hypercalcaemia might prevent the tetany, we conducted a trial of 5 μg/day 1,25(OH)2D3 over 5 days. Despite the resultant increase in calcium, he developed tetany with the reduction of magnesium intake and decline of serum magnesium from 0.63 to 0.39 mmol/l (normal 〉0.65 mmol/l). After 1,25(OH)2D3 was stopped and the parenteral magnesium injections suspended, 33% of his usual oral supplement was given instead by continuous nasogastric infusion and serum magnesium rose to 0.60 mmol/l. This regimen was better tolerated because of decreased gastrointestinal side-effects and freedom from parenteral injections. We observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 supplements do not promote magnesium retention nor does the resultant hypercalcaemia prevent hypomagnesaemic tetany. Conclusion Continuous nocturnal nasogastric infusion may be considered in lieu of parenteral therapy in primary infantile hypomagnesaemia.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The collagen type Iα1 Sp1 (ColIA1) polymorphism has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased prevalence of osteoporosis. This study examines associations of the ColIA1 genotype with BMD and 5-year rates of change in BMD in elderly men and women. The 243 subjects, aged 65 years and older, were participants in two consecutive studies lasting a total of 5-years. BMD of the total body, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were made by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The distribution of the genotypes (155 in the SS genotype, 79 in Ss, and 9 in ss) was proportionately similar to those reported by others. Baseline BMD did not differ significantly at any skeletal site. Unadjusted 5-year percent changes in BMD differed significantly by genotype only at the total body (P= 0.009), where the change was −0.29 ± 0.21 (SEM) in the SS genotype, −0.60 ± 0.25 in the Ss genotype, and −3.01 ± 0.72 in the ss genotype. This 9.4% increase in bone loss of the ss genotype relative to the SS genotype was reduced to an 8.9% increase after adjustment for sex, age, weight, and supplementation group. Results at the femoral neck were directionally similar, but not statistically significant. No effect of genotype on change in spine BMD was observed. In conclusion, bone loss from the total body was significantly greater in elderly men and women who were homozygous for the s allele compared with heterozygotes and SS homozygotes. This finding suggests a possible explanation for the association of the ColIA1 polymorphism with increased rates of osteoporotic fracture, but should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of subjects in the unfavorable ss genotype.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The appearance of biotypes of the annual grass weed black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides L. Huds), which are resistant to certain graminicides, is the most significant example of acquired resistance to herbicides seen so far in European agriculture. An investigation was perfomed into the basis of the specific cross-resistance to cyclohexanedione (CHD) and aryloxyphenoxypropionoic acid (AOPP) herbicides in the ‘Notts A1’ population of A. myosuroides, which survived treatment of fields with recommended rates of AOPP herbicides. In comparison with the wild-type ‘Rothamsted’ population, the resistant biotype showed over 100-fold resistance to these herbicides in a hydroponic growth system. Biosynthesis of fatty acids and activity of crude extracts of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) were commensurately less sensitive to these herbicides in Notts A1 compared with the Rothamsted biotype. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the highly resistant population has arisen through selection of a mutant ACCase which is much less sensitive to the AOPP and CHD graminicides. Rapidly growing cell suspension cultures established from the Notts A1 population also showed high resistance indices for CHD or AOPP herbicides compared with cultures from the Rothamsted biotype. Fatty acid biosynthesis and ACCase activity in the cell suspensions were similarly sensitive towards the graminicides to those in the foliar tissue counterparts of the resistant and sensitive populations. Moreover, purification of the main (chloroplast) isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase showed that this enzyme from the Notts A1 population was over 200-fold less sensitive towards the AOPP herbicide, quizalofop, than the equivalent isoform from the Rothamsted population. These data again fully supported the proposal that resistance in the Notts biotype is due to an insensitive acetyl-CoA carboxylase isoform. Overall, cell suspensions were also demonstrated to be excellent tools for further investigation of the molecular basis of the high level herbicide resistance which is prone to occur in A. myosuroides.
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