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  • 2000-2004  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by the inheritance of a copy of the gene encoding mutant huntingtin with an expanded CAG repeat. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) mRNA decreases in transgenic HD mice expressing exon 1 of the human huntingtin gene (HD). The mouse PDE10A mRNA is expressed through alternative splicing and polyadenylation in a tissue-specific manner and that transcription of striatal PDE10A mRNA is driven by two promoters. PDE10A2 is the predominant isoform of the gene is expressed in the striatum. Using in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR, we determined that decreased steady-state levels of PDE10A2 mRNA were caused by an altered transcription initiation rate rather than by post-transcriptional mRNA instability in HD mice. Transcription from three initiation sites located within a 50-bp region in the PDE10A2-specific promoter was differentially affected by the presence of the mutant huntingtin transgene. The mouse and human PDE10A2 promoters are highly conserved with respect to the relative position of cis-regulatory elements. Several transcription factors that have been shown to interact with mutant huntingtin, including Sp1, neuron restrictive silencing factor, TATA-binding protein and cAMP-response element binding protein, are unlikely to be involved in mutant huntingtin-induced PDE10A2 transcriptional dysregulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Down-regulation of T-type Ca channel current and mRNA occurs following differentiation of Y79 retinoblastoma cells. To understand how the decrease in expression is linked to cell differentiation, we examined transcriptional regulation of the Cav3.1 Ca channel gene, CACNA1G. We identified two putative promoters (A and B) in 1.3 kb of cloned genomic DNA. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that two transcripts with different 5′ untranslated regions are generated by different transcription start sites, with promoter A favoured in undifferentiated cells and promoter B favoured in differentiated cells. Functional analyses of the promoter sequence revealed that both promoters are active. Enhancer and repressor sequences were identified upstream of promoter A and B, respectively. These results suggest that the down-regulation of α1G mRNA in differentiated Y79 cells is mediated primarily by decreased activity of promoter A, which could occur in conjunction with repression of the activity of promoter B. The decrease in T-type Ca channel expression in Y79 cells may be an essential signal affecting phenotypic maturation and expression of other ion channel subtypes in the differentiated cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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