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  • 2000-2004  (5)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities. Of cases of free trisomy 21 causing Down syndrome, about 95% result from nondisjunction during meiosis, and about 5% are due to mitotic errors in somatic cells. Previous studies using DNA polymorphisms of chromosome 21 showed that paternal origin of trisomy 21 occurred in only 6.7% of cases. However, these studies were conducted in liveborn trisomy 21-affected infants, and the possible impact of fetal death was not taken into account. Using nine distinct DNA polymorphisms, we tested 110 families with a prenatally diagnosed trisomy 21 fetus. Of the 102 informative cases, parental origin was maternal in 91 cases (89.2%) and paternal in 11 (10.8%). This percentage differs significantly from the 7.0% observed in previous studies (P〈0.001). In order to test the influence of genomic parental imprinting, we determined the origin of the extra chromosome 21 in relation to different factors: advanced maternal age, maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hormone of placental origin), severity of the disease, gestational age at diagnosis and fetal gender. We found that the increased frequency of paternal origin of nondisjunction in trisomy 21-affected fetuses cannot obviously be explained by factors leading to selective loss of paternal origin fetuses.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acyclovir is rare. We report the 5th case of systemic acyclovir reaction subsequent to acyclovir contact dermatitis, with investigations made to determine an alternative antiviral treatment. A 23-year-old woman, after dermatitis while using Zovirax® cream, went on to develop urticaria after oral acyclovir. Patch tests were performed with the components of Zovirax® cream (acyclovir, propylene glycol and sodium lauryl sulfate) and with other antiviral drugs. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax® cream, acyclovir, valacyclovir and propylene glycol. Patch and prick tests with famciclovir were negative, but its oral administration caused an itchy erythematous dermatitis on the trunk and extremities. Our patient developed a systemic acyclovir reaction subsequent to acyclovir allergic contact dermatitis, with cross-reactions to valacyclovir and famciclovir. Their common chemical structure is the 2-aminopurine nucleus. It is probably this part of the molecule that provokes both contact allergy and systemic reactions. The only antiviral drugs not having this core are foscarnet and cidofovir, and these could therefore be alternatives.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1292-895X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract: We report the results of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies on aqueous solutions of spherical polyelectrolyte micelles formed by association of charged-neutral diblock copolymers. The neutral moieties are found to self-assemble into small dense spheres (cores of the micelles) whose sizes are independent of the polymer concentration c. In the dilute regime, c〈c *, where c* is the overlap concentration of the micelles, the conformation of the charged groups, which form the corona of the micelles, is found to be extended. A liquid-like order is observed over a wide concentration range spanning from the dilute regime to the concentrated regime. For c〉c *, polyelectrolyte correlations appear at smaller spatial scales and coexist with the liquid-like order. These results suggest that for dense brushes, above c*, the rod-like statistics of the charged chains begin to disappear due to contraction of corona arms or by interpenetration of coronae. For less dense brushes, the charged chains are found to be extended up to concentrations far above c*, before the progressive development of polyelectrolyte correlations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The present study was made to determine the value of drug skin tests in patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) due to a synergistin (pristinamycin) and to determine the frequency of cross-reactions between synergistins. 29 patients were referred during the onset of the CADR due to pristinamycin: 18 with maculopapular rash, 9 erythrodermas, 1 angioedema and 1 Stevens–Johnson syndrome. They all had patch tests with pristinamycin and, in most cases, with other synergistins [virginiamycin and dalfopristin–quinupristin (DQ)], prick tests (10 cases) and intradermal tests (IDT) (5 cases). Skin tests with synergistins were positive in 27 cases, patch tests with pristinamycin in 20/29 cases (69%), prick tests with pristinamycin in 3/9 cases on immediate (1 case) or on delayed (2 cases) readings, and IDT with DQ in 4/5 cases. Cross-reactions between synergistins occurred in 9/22 with virginiamycin and in 7/8 cases with DQ. Skin tests with synergistins are useful in investigating CADR due to pristinamycin. Synergistins are composed of 2 chains (1 depsipeptide and 1 macrocyclic lactone) with many structural analogies between all synergistins. According to the chemical structures and our results, it seems advisable to avoid all synergistins in patients with CADR due to pristinamycin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4854
    Keywords: porous silicon ; ZnSe ; electrochemical deposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Electroplating of II-VI semiconductors like ZnSe into porous silicon can be an efficient and low cost method to fill the porous volume with a transparent and conductive material. With n-type porous layers, ZnSe impregnation is more effective near the sample surface because of reaction rate limitations due to diffusion in the electrolyte. In this paper, it is shown that the deposition of ZnSe into p-type porous silicon can be localized in the lower part of the porous layer if the reduction reaction rate is monitored by limiting the charge carrier supply. This can be done by controlling the power of the laser beam which photo-generates the carriers at the bottom of the pores. Studying the porous layer chemical composition by Auger electron spectroscopy confirms that the deposit is localized at the pore bottom, whereas the changes in the chemical composition of the porous silicon surface are analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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