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  • 2000-2004  (6)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    ISSN: 1365-2524
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The role of the private sector in the provision of publicly funded healthcare services has become the subject of increasing debate and discussion at the heart of the New Labour Government. The present paper reports the findings from an empirical study regarding the attitude of public-sector managers towards public–private partnerships in the healthcare arena. It reveals a growing awareness amongst managers of both the positive and negative consequences of stepping into the market place to purchase services. However, in the context of the ongoing ideological debate within the Government regarding the role of both the private sector and markets within healthcare, public sector managers are unlikely to receive the practical advice that will enable them to reap the benefits of working with the private sector and avoid the pitfalls.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 73 (2002), S. 2185-2189 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A high power fiber delivery system has been developed for a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Multimode fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm were tested with a view to transmitting the maximum possible amount of optical energy. The importance of surface finish was investigated by employing a number of different polishing procedures. Atomic force microscopy and laser-induced damage threshold measurements were used to identify a clear correlation between surface finish and transmission capability. Surface roughness measurements as low as 3 nm were made and the transmission of up to 30 J/cm2 achieved. The front face of the fibers would be improved during laser testing due to plasma formation which acts to anneal the surface. The various damage mechanisms that limit the performance of the fiber have been studied and attributed to different optical and physical effects. The nature of the light spot emerging from the fiber was analyzed and quantified by beam profilometry. A number of different methods for altering the beam profile were tried but changing the length of the fiber was found to be the most effective. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 88 (2000), S. 3859-3864 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Laser-driven flyers were launched from substrate backed aluminum films. They were produced by single pulses from a Q-switched Nd:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser, of 10 ns duration and typically up to a few hundred mJ energy, with a focused spot size of approximately 1 mm diameter. The aluminum films were between 2 and 6 μm thick and the flyers typically achieved average velocities of a few km s−1. The integrity of the flyers was studied using streak photography and microscopy of the impacted flyers. Threshold times and distances prior to plasma penetration were used as a measure of integrity and were calculated for films of different thickness, launched with various laser pulse energies. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The temperature rise produced in iron and copper specimens by high strain deformation in a compression split Hopkinson pressure bar was measured simultaneously using two independent techniques: (i) small thermocouples (0.2 mm junction size) and (ii) an infrared (IR) camera system based on mercury cadmium telluride (spectral response between 8 and 12 μm). The response time of the thermocouple system was limited by the time taken for heat to diffuse into the junction. In order to obtain useful data with the IR camera system, the emissivity of the specimen surface needed to be modified by depositing a layer of soot. Even so, the measured emissivity was low (0.4), suggesting that the soot layer was semitransparent to IR radiation. The thermocouples, however, yielded temperature measurements that were consistent with all the mechanical work performed on the specimens being converted to heat. The main positive result obtained with the IR camera system is that heating of the iron specimens was spatially nonuniform. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The detonation velocity following type II deflagration-to-detonation transitions (DDT) has been observed to be markedly different to that which would be expected were the charges directly initiated. In charges of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) velocities as high as 5.6 mm μs−1 have been observed compared to 3.7 mm μs−1 which is both predicted and measured for the charge were it to be directly initiated. Experiments have also been carried out that attempt to measure the temperature within columns of PETN prior to a type II DDT event. Other experiments and hydrocode simulations have been carried out that attempt to isolate the possible causes of the anomalous detonation velocity and as a result determine what the critical factors that determine the velocity are. These studies have led to a greater understanding not only of the reasons behind the change in detonation velocity, but also of the stages that occur in the build up to type II DDT. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 88 (2000), S. 65-69 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Charges of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were impacted by laser-driven flyer plates launched from substrate backed aluminum films. The flyers were produced by single pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The aluminum flyers were between 3 and 5 μm thick, had diameters of 1 mm, and achieved velocities up to 8 km s−1. The stresses were intense but of only nanosecond duration. This falls into an interesting regime since the shock thickness of a few microns is of the order of typical hot-spot sizes and less than the grain size of conventional explosive powders. Ultrafine PETN (∼1 μm grain size) was readily initiated, whereas conventional, 135 sieve PETN with a grain size of 106 μm was not, although limited reaction was observed in some cases. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was carried out to help elucidate the differences in behavior. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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