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  • 2000-2004  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: bioequivalence ; dose proportionality ; mixed effects model ; pharmacokinetics ; power model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. The aim of this work was a pragmatic, statistically sound and clinically relevant approach to dose-proportionality analyses that is compatible with common study designs. Methods. Statistical estimation is used to derive a (1-α)% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of dose-normalized, geometric mean values (Rdnm) of a pharmacokinetic variable (PK). An acceptance interval for Rdnm defining the clinically relevant, dose-proportional region is established a priori. Proportionality is declared if the CI for Rdnm is completely contained within the critical region. The approach is illustrated with mixed-effects models based on a power function of the form PK = β0 • Doseβ1; however, the logic holds for other functional forms. Results. It was observed that the dose-proportional region delineated by a power model depends only on the dose ratio. Furthermore, a dose ratio (ρ1) can be calculated such that the CI lies entirely within the pre-specified critical region. A larger ratio (ρ2) may exist such that the CI lies completely outside that region. The approach supports inferences about the PK response that are not constrained to the exact dose levels studied. Conclusion. The proposed method enhances the information from a clinical dose-proportionality study and helps to standardize decision rules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is widely believed to affect climate. Changes in ocean circulation have been inferred from records of the deep water chemical composition derived from sedimentary nutrient proxies, but their impact on climate is difficult to assess because such ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Nowadays many telescopes around the world are automated and some networks of robotic telescopes are active or planned. Such equipment could be used for thetraining of students and for science in the Universities of DCs and of newastronomical countries, by sending them observational data via Internetor through remotely controlled telescope. It seems that it is thetime to open up for discussion with UN and ESA organizations and also withIAU, how to implement links between robotic telescopes and suchUniversities applying for collaborations. Many scientific fields couldthus be accessible to them, for example on stellar variability, near-earthobject follow-up, γ-ray burst counterpart tracking, and so on.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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