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  • 2000-2004  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1523-5378
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background. Recently, the acquisition by Helicobacter pylori of resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem. Therefore, nonantibiotic substances are required to diminish H. pylori-induced gastric lesions. In the present study, the effects of Cladosiphon fucoidan were examined in terms of H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin in vitro and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in vivo.Methods. The inhibitory effect of Cladosiphon fucoidan and other polysaccharides on H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin was assayed in vitro with mucin-coated microtiter plates. The effect of Cladosiphon fucoidan on H. pylori-induced gastritis was examined in vivo using Mongolian gerbils. H. pylori-inoculated gerbils were given fucoidan in drinking water. Six weeks after H. pylori-inoculation, gerbils were sacrificed for macroscopic and microscopic examination of gastric lesions and counting of viable H. pylori in the gastric mucosa.Results. Cladosiphon fucoidan inhibited the H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin at pH 2.0 and 4.0. Two other sulfated polysaccharides, Fucus fucoidan and dextran sulfate sodium, also inhibited the attachment but only at pH 2.0. Inhibitory effects of these three sulfated polysaccharides were not observed at pH 7.2 and nonsulfated polysaccharides, such as mannan and dextran, exerted no influence at any pH. In the in vivo experiment, the H. pylori-induced gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori infected animals were markedly reduced by fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner, at doses of 0.05 and 0.5% in the drinking water.Conclusion. Cladosiphon fucoidan may deserve particular attention as a safe agent that can prevent H. pylori infection and reduce the risk of associated gastric cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Irinotecan hydrochloride ; CPT-11 ; SN-38 ; Delayed-onset diarrhea ; Pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Purpose: Clinically, diarrhea is the major dose-limiting toxicity of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11). Using a rat model, we attempted to decrease the incidence of delayed-onset diarrhea by modifying the administration schedule of CPT-11, and studied the pharmacokinetics in this model in relation to the incidence of diarrhea. Methods: CPT-11 (total dose, 240 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (i.v.) to rats according to various schedules, and the incidence of delayed-onset diarrhea was monitored. Results: Administration of CPT-11 at a dose of 60 mg/kg once daily for four consecutive days induced severe diarrhea, while at 30 mg/kg twice daily at an interval of 9 h (daily dose 60 mg/kg) for four consecutive days alleviated the diarrheal symptoms, and at 30 or 40 mg/kg once daily for eight or six consecutive days, respectively, diarrhea was hardly induced. With the first schedule, mucosal impairment of the cecal epithelium was observed, including wall thickening, edema, decrease in crypt number and size, and formation of pseudomembrane-like substance, whereas these changes were less severe with the second schedule and were hardly observed with the other two schedules. The areas under the plasma and cecal tissue concentration-time curves (AUCpla and AUCcec), the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) and the biliary excretions of CPT-11 and its metabolites, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) and SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G) in rats depended on the daily dose of CPT-11. Exceptionally, CPT-11 Cmax was significantly lower and SN-38 AUCcec was larger in the animals treated at 30 mg/kg twice daily than in those treated at 60 mg/kg once daily. Conclusion: These results suggested that the duration of exposure to both CPT-11 and SN-38 of the intestinal epithelium and CPT-11 plasma Cmax are closely related to the incidence and severity of CPT-11-induced delayed-onset diarrhea in rats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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