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  • 2000-2004  (110)
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  • 1
    Unknown
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Call number: QR183:65
    Keywords: Immunoassay / methods ; Immunoassay
    Pages: xix, 304 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 0199637113
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a skin condition associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance and has been shown to be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The influence of genetic factors on AN and the basis of its association with type 2 diabetes and its risk factors are unknown. Using data from 397 participants from two Mexican American family studies, we investigated the heritability of AN and its genetic correlation with other diabetes risk factors. AN was examined as both a continuous trait and a dichotomous trait by means of a previously described validated scale. The results indicated that the heritability (h2) for AN, when examined as a continuous trait, was high (0.58±0.10) and statistically significant (P〈0.001). The h2 for AN as a dichotomous trait was estimated to be moderate (0.23±0.05) and was also significant (P=0.018). The additive genetic correlations between AN (either as a continuous trait or a dichotomous trait) and type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, including body mass index and fasting insulin, were high or moderately high and statistically significant. The random environmental correlations, by contrast, were low and statistically insignificant. These data suggest that genes that influence AN have pleiotropic effects on diabetes and its risk factors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Many models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have succeeded in replicating dopaminergic neuron loss or α-synuclein aggregation but not the formation of classical Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of PD. Our cybrid model of sporadic PD was created by introducing the mitochondrial genes from PD patients into neuroblastoma cells that lack mitochondrial DNA. Previous studies using cybrids have shown that information encoded by mitochondrial DNA in patients contributes to many pathogenic features of sporadic PD. In this paper, we report the generation of fibrillar and vesicular inclusions in a long-term cybrid cell culture model that replicates the essential antigenic and structural features of Lewy bodies in PD brain without the need for exogenous protein expression or inhibition of mitochondrial or proteasomal function. The inclusions generated by PD cybrid cells stained with eosin, thioflavin S, and antibodies to α-synuclein, ubiquitin, parkin, synphilin-1, neurofilament, β-tubulin, the proteasome, nitrotyrosine, and cytochrome c. Future studies of these cybrids will enable us to better understand how Lewy bodies form and what role they play in the pathogenesis of PD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Oxidative stress induced by acute complex I inhibition with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion activated biphasically the stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the early transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Early JNK activation was dependent on mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) activity, whereas late-phase JNK activation and the cleavage of signaling proteins Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) kinase (MEKK)-1 appeared to be ANT-independent. Early NF-κB activation depended on MEK, later activation required an intact electron transport chain (ETC), and Parkinson's disease (PD) cybrid (mitochondrial transgenic cytoplasmic hybrid) cells had increased basal NF-κB activation. Mitochondria appear capable of signaling ETC impairment through MAPK modules and inducing protective NF-κB responses, which are increased by PD mitochondrial genes amplified in cybrid cells. Irreversible commitment to apoptosis in this cell model may derive from loss of Raf-1 and cleavage/activation of MEKK-1, processes reported in other models to be caspase-mediated. Therapeutic strategies that reduce mitochondrial activation of proapoptotic MAPK modules, i.e., JNK, and enhance survival pathways, i.e., NF-κB, may offer neuroprotection in this debilitating disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1369-1600
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Repeated exposure to psychostimulant drugs such as d-methamphetamine (d-METH) and cocaine can be associated with extremely long-lived changes in dopamine systems at the behavioral, cellular and molecular level. Sensitization or an enhanced response to drug exposure is one such change. Investigations of these phenomena at the cellular and molecular levels are being conducted in the hope that this will aid in understanding how such adaptations might contribute to drug addition. Repeated exposure to certain amphetamines can also result in damage to dopaminergic pathways. Although some of the same molecular adaptations and mechanisms are suspected to occur or play a role in the neurotoxic sequelae associated with psychostimulant exposure, there has been little attempt to examine the relationship among these phenomena. Here we utilized C57BL/6J female mice to examine whether exposure to a sensitizing regimen of d-METH would impact the degree of neural injury induced by a subsequent exposure to a neurotoxic regimen of the same psychostimulant. Every other day exposure to d-METH (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg) for 11 days produced a behavioral sensitization, as evidenced by a significant increase in the degree of locomotor activity induced by each subsequent exposure to d-METH. Following a 5-day period of no drug exposure sensitized mice were given a neurotoxic regiment of d-METH (a total of four injections of 10.0 mg/kg, one every 2 hours) and striatal tissue examined 72 hours later. All groups, whether drug-naive or sensitized previously to d-METH, showed exactly the same degree of dopaminergic striatal damage induced by a neurotoxic regimen. This was evidenced by equivalent reductions in dopamine and elevations in GFAP protein, a marker of astrocytic response to injury, GFAP. The inability of a sensitizing regimen to either exacerbate or lessen the neurotoxic actions of the same compound suggests that the molecular and cellular control of these two aspects of psychostimulant exposure may differ.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1369-1600
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Specific protein phosphorylation pathways have been shown to play a role in cellular adaptation responses underlying addiction to psychostimulants such as methamphetamine and cocaine. Transcriptional regulation through fos-related antigens constitutes one element through which these dopaminergic agonists exert their persistent actions. In addition to their addictive properties, amphetamines are known to damage dopaminergic nerve terminals. Although not widely appreciated, protein phosphorylation cascades and fos-related antigens also may play a role in the neurotoxic actions of substituted amphetamines such as methamphetamine. Here we document the involvement of the dopaminoceptive phosphoprotein, DARPP-32, the fos-related antigen, FRA-2, and the growth associated protein kinase, MAP kinase, in the neurotoxic action of known dopaminergic neurotoxicants, including methamphetamine. The addictive and neurotoxic properties of psychostimulants may share some molecular signaling mechanisms.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1399-3038
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Differences have been suggested to occur in the composition of intestinal microflora from allergic and non-allergic children. In this study we used a semi-quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of Clostridium difficile-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) (CDIgG). CDIgG was excellent in differentiating between adults with or without Cl. difficile colitis (absorbance levels, positive vs. negative controls: geometric mean (GM) 0.301, 95% CI: 0.289–0.314 vs. GM 0.167, 95% CI: 0.155–0.181; mean difference 1.8-fold, 95% CI: 1.65–1.95; p 〈 0.0001). We used this technique to investigate whether there are any differences between atopic wheezy infants and non-atopic non-wheezy controls. In a prospective cohort study (n = 390) 10 patients were identified at 1 year of age (atopic, history of recurrent wheeze) and matched (gender, month of birth, exposure to Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1) with a control group of infants (non-atopic, no history of wheeze). The patients had significantly higher Cl. difficile-specific IgG absorbance levels (GM 0.298, 95% CI: 0.249–0.358) compared with controls (GM 0.235, 95% CI: 0.201–0.274; mean difference 1.27-fold, 95% CI: 1.07–1.50; p = 0.01). These results suggest that there may be differences in the composition of intestinal microflora between allergic and non-allergic infants at 1 year of age, with allergic children having higher Cl. difficile IgG antibody levels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Implicit strategies for neuroprotection in the adult brain include GABAA receptor activation, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor and sodium voltage-gated channel inhibition. Ironically, these same targets may be harmful to the immature or developing brain. Protection has been demonstrated for both immature and mature brain with the use of a synthetic ovothiol analogue. The following beneficial effects have been demonstrated in mice: protection against audiogenic seizures, brain structures with clear-cut delineation of ibotenate-challenged white and grey matter lesions along with exceptional early and delayed protections, and potent cerebral cell death inhibition. The compound lacks both GABAergic activity and sodium channel blocker properties, which may help explain the lack of toxicity normally expressed in an immature brain utilizing these agents [J.W. Olney (2002) Neurotoxicology, 93, 1–10]. The oxidized form of the compound is virtually devoid of antioxidant activity. In vivo it exhibits cerebroprotective properties similar to those of reduced compounds endowed with antioxidant properties. This unexpected finding has prompted an extensive in vitro exploration of underlying molecular mechanisms that have led to the identification of several recycling mechanisms consistent with non rate-limiting conversion of oxidized to reduced compound forms. Taken as a whole, this work offers an unique combined in vitro and in vivo support that: (i) antioxidant therapy, here engineered from marine invertebrate egg protectants, may be a valuable strategy in protecting both mammalian adult and developing brain; and (ii) recycling (thiol-disulphide exchange) properties of the oxidized form of an antioxidant compound are as important as the antioxidant potential exhibited by a bioactive reduced antioxidant in certain neuroprotective processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In order for clinicians to effectively manage their practices, they need to know how much time they spent in carrying out procedures. The provision of two-implant overdentures for edentulous patients is becoming more prevalent as increasing evidence demonstrates their great benefit to patients. The aim of this study was to measure the number of visits and the time required during the surgical phase (from pre-op examination to preliminary impressions) of mandibular two-implant overdenture treatment. Thirty edentulous patients were assigned to receive two root-form implants in the mandible between the mental foramen, as part of a randomized controlled clinical trial. All visits and time spent by the oral surgeon, the surgical assistant and the prosthodontist were measured individually. The mean number of scheduled visits with the oral surgeon was four, and the mean time taken was 104 min. The mean time taken by the surgical assistant was 122 min. On average, the prosthodontist was required for two visits, with a total mean time of 36 min. In addition to the scheduled visits, 14 patients solicited additional appointments (unscheduled visits) for various problems (e.g. loose healing cap). The average time taken for unscheduled visits was 32 min. Combining scheduled and unscheduled visits, the mean total time taken by the oral surgeon was 109 min. The surgical assistant was needed for a mean total of 125 min, and the prosthodontist spent, on average, 46 min in this phase of treatment. Results from this study will assist clinicians in establishing the total time and number of visits needed for the surgical phase of two-implant mandibular overdenture treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract – Implant overdentures and conventional prostheses have been compared in several trials using a variety of functional and oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) outcomes. In this paper, we describe the impact of implant overdentures on general and OHQOL in seniors.Objectives: To compare the oral health-related and general quality of life of seniors (aged 65–75 years) who received either mandibular implant overdentures or conventional dentures.Methods: Sixty edentulous patients were recruited. Thirty received mandibular overdentures retained by two implants (IOD) and a conventional maxillary denture, the other 30 subjects received new maxillary and mandibular conventional complete dentures (CD). All completed the 20-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-20) before treatment, then at two and 6 months after delivery of the dentures. The SF-36 general health questionnaire was completed at baseline and 6 months only.Results: Pretreatment and 6-month data from 55 subjects were analyzed. Those who received the IODs had significantly better OHIP-20 total scores at 6 months. Results for IOD subjects were also superior in the functional limitation, physical pain, physical disability and psychological disability subscales. While no significant between group difference was found on the SF-36 health survey, significant pre–post-treatment differences within the IOD group were detected for the role emotional, vitality and the social function scales.Conclusions: Mandibular overdentures retained by two implants provide elderly patients with better OHQOL. General health-related quality of life improved in the implant group.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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