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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Keywords Proprioception ; Equilibrium ; Posture ; Reproducibility of results ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract The Kinesthetic Ability Trainer (KAT 2000) is a balance platform designed for training and functional testing of the neuromuscular control system. Forty healthy and sports-active persons were tested and 1 month later retested to investigate the reliability of the KAT 2000 testing “one-leg static balance” and “two-leg dynamic balance”. A significant improvement at retesting on the same day was seen in both tests; furthermore the dynamic test result improved significantly with retesting 1 month later. The data obtained made it possible to calculate the 95% confidence limits for an unchanged test result for a single person and a group of persons. The results show a clear learning effect when the persons are retested, especially in the dynamic test. The KAT 2000 can be used as a tool for testing groups of persons both in short- and long-term studies, but it cannot be used for testing single persons due to the great variance in the test results. Further investigations involving injured persons are needed to determine the range of improvement after intervention.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The clinical, histological, phenotypic and genotypic features of 21 primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCLs) have been investigated. The patients were 13 men and eight women aged 34–91 years (median 67) at diagnosis. Eighteen patients had localized disease, and three had multiple skin lesions at diagnosis. Twelve patients developed cutaneous or extracutaneous recurrences, and five died from malignant lymphoma 7–84 months (median 36) after diagnosis. Histological examination showed features of marginal zone/mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma in 12 cases. Three of these had transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in relapse biopsies. The remaining cases were seven primary DLBCLs and two cases tentatively classified as follicle centre cell (FCC) lymphoma. The neoplastic B cells showed similar phenotypes and genotypes in most cases (CD20+, CD79+, CD5–, CD10–, cyclin D1–, bcl-2+, bcl-x–, bax–, t(14;18)-negative). p53 protein was expressed in five cases, and four harboured mis-sense or loss-of-function mutations in the p53 gene. Deletion or promoter region hypermethylation of the p16INK4a gene was detected in two patients with DLBCL. The level of retinoblastoma protein expression and the proliferative fraction were significantly higher in DLBCL (〉 50%) than in MALT- or FCC-type lymphomas (〈 10%). Features associated with an unfavourable prognosis were the presence of multiple skin lesions at diagnosis, transformation from MALT-type lymphoma to DLBCL, and possibly p16INK4a aberrations. It is concluded that most CBCLs are dissimilar from FCC lymphomas and seem to be more closely related to marginal zone/MALT-type lymphomas. It is also suggested that there are fundamental differences between DLBCL and other histological categories of CBCL, indicating that cutaneous DLBCL is a separate entity with an increased growth potential and genetic features similar to DLBCL originating in other anatomical sites.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 77 (2000), S. 585-587 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A field emitter array held at the threshold of emission by a dc gate potential from which current pulses are triggered by the application of a laser pulse on the backside of the semiconductor may produce electron bunches ("density modulation") at gigahertz frequencies. We develop an analytical model of such optically controlled emission from a silicon tip using a modified Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin and Airy function approach to solving Schrödinger's equation. Band bending and an approximation to the exchange-correlation effects on the image charge potential are included for an array of hyperbolic emitters with a distribution in tip radii and work function. For a simple relationship between the incident photon flux and the resultant electron density at the emission site, an estimation of the tunneling current is made. An example of the operation and design of such a photon-assisted field emission device is given. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Anaesthesia with MS-222 followed by intra-peritoneal (ip) injection (with a 10% ethanol in corn oil carrier) of fathead minnow either as one or three (weekly) treatments did not affect survival, behaviour or secondary sexual characteristics of the fish. Fecundity of the fish, as indicated by fertility and hatching success, was also unaffected. Gonadal condition (relative gonad mass, histopathology) was not altered in either sex. Male and female plasma sex steroids (β;-oestradiol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone) and male vitellogenin concentrations were not significantly affected by the treatments. Females subjected to either ip treatment regime had significantly higher plasma vitellogenin concentrations than control females. However, based on previous data, this difference did not appear to be treatment-related. Overall, exposure of fathead minnows to chemicals via the ip route should not confound the interpretation of toxicity tests with potential endocrine disrupting chemicals.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2056
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A macrozoobenthic community study was conducted in an East Greenlandic fjord (Young Sound, 74°18′N; 20°15′W) during the ice-free period from July to August in 1996. Grab samples as well as underwater photography were used for quantifying the macrozoobenthos at water depths between 20 and 85 m. Abundance decreased with depth from 2700 ind. · m−2 at 20 m to 900 ind. · m−2 at 85 m. At a time series station at 35 m, abundance increased from 700 ind. · m−2 in mid-July to 1400 ind. · m−2 in mid-August. Polychaetes dominated in grab samples but bivalves constituted an important part of the benthic fauna, especially at the shallow part of the depth gradient. Photographs revealed high abundances of large epifaunal species, especially brittle stars. Diversity was generally high, with around 45 species per 201 individuals, as calculated by Hurlbert's rarefaction term. A gradual change in community structure with depth was observed, which could be related to variation in sediment composition and disturbance intensity.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Developing embryos and sexually mature follicles of the male portion of ovotestis proved to be a suitable material as a source of cleaving cells for advanced cytological investigations on the sacoglossan species Oxynoe olivacea Rafinesque, 1819 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). O. olivacea has a diploid chromosomal number of 30 made up of 15 pairs of which six are metacentric/submetacentric (M/SM), four subtelocentric (ST) and five on the borderline between SM and ST. Correspondingly, 15 bivalents occur in spermatocytes at Metaphase I. Constitutive heterochromatin is scarce and restricted to small C-bands seen in five pachytene bivalents. The use of combined silver staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata) 4.3 kilobase (kb) rDNA probe (prR14) consisting of sequences from the 3′ end of 18S rDNA to the 3′ end of 26S rDNA, revealed that nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) are situated terminally on one arm of a small metacentric pair. The telomeric (TTAGGG) n sequence did not hybridize with termini of O. olivacea chromosomes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
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