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  • 1
    ISSN: 1442-2042
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Although the pattern of cancer incidence in South Korea is not the same as that of western countries, urological cancer will become one of the major cancers in South Korea in the near future. The pattern of cancer in South Korea is becoming steadily similar to that in western countries. It is, therefore, important to understand the epidemiological features of cancer. Surveillance of cancer incidence and mortality trends provides clues to etiology and helps to assess the effects of improved diagnostic, screening and intervention measures.Methods: The subjects of the study were 13 208 patients living in South Korea, newly diagnosed with urological cancer during the period of 1985–1999. The data were analyzed by age, sex, geography and period of diagnosis (1985–1989; 1990–1994; 1995–1999).Results: Bladder cancer was the most common urological cancer in South Korea (6867 cases, 52.0%). The incidence of prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma was similar. Male patients outnumbered female patients by a ratio of 5.4 : 1. In both sexes, the peak incidence of urological cancer in South Korea was noted in the 70+ age group. The geographic distribution of urological cancer across seven residential areas was similar. The incidence rate of all urological cancer (except urethral and penile cancer) had increased remarkably, especially in the last several years. The crude incidence rate of urological cancer among Koreans in South Korea was estimated to be 46.55 per 100 000 males, 8.64per 100 000 females and 27.67 per 100 000 across both sexes.Conclusion: Although this survey is not definitive, these data should be useful in showing general patterns or changes of incidence of urological cancer in South Korea. The elevated incidence of urological cancer noted in our survey also indicates the need for continued promotion of urological cancer screening programs. Moreover, these results may be useful in indicating directions for future research of urological cancer.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] An increasing number of microbial genomes have been completely sequenced, and functional analyses of these genomic sequences are under way. To facilitate these analyses, we have developed a genome-engineering tool for determining essential genes and minimizing bacterial genomes. We made two large ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A 82-year-old Korean woman had had a 6-month history of an asymptomatic, flat, hard, red to brown tumor on her right thigh. This lesion had been slowly enlarging with an advancing margin. She had noted gradually developing pain associated with necrosis and ulceration on the lesion. Examination revealed a solitary, 8 × 7.5 cm, yellow to dark red, telangiectatic tumor with multiple areas of punched out ulceration and a peripheral elevated yellowish margin on the right inner upper thigh (〈link href="#f1"〉Fig. 1). No clinically similar lesions on the periorbital area or other sites were seen. Histologic examination revealed a massive palisading granulomatous infiltration with several layers of extensive bands of necrobiotic zone in the entire dermis and deep subcutaneous tissue (〈link href="#f2"〉Fig. 2a). In the granulomatous infiltrate in the dermis and subcutis, many various-shaped, some bizarre, angulated, foreign-body type multinucleated giant cells, many Touton giant cells, and a few Langhans giant cells were found to be scattered (〈link href="#f2"〉Fig. 2b). There were numerous xanthomatized histiocytes. Dense infiltration of lymphoplasma cells was seen in the periphery of the granuloma and perivascularly. Conspicuous granulomatous panniculitis composed of lymphoplasma cells, polymorphonuclear cells, foam cells, and Touton and foreign-body giant cells was also seen. However, cholesterol clefts and lymphoid follicles were not seen. Subcutaneous septae were widened by necrobiotic change and fibrosis with thrombosed large vessels. Gram, Gomeri-methenamine silver and acid-fast stains were negative. The necrobiotic areas were positive to alcian blue. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated white blood cell counts, anemia and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The following parameters were within the normal range: lipids, glucose, renal and liver function tests, serum complements, serum immunoglobulins, cryoglobulins and antinuclear antibodies. The findings of chest X-ray, skull X-ray and ectorcardiography were normal. Serum electrophoresis and serum immunoelectrophoresis revealed no abnormality. The patient was diagnosed as having necrobiotic xanthogranuloma without paraproteinemia. She was treated with oral steroid (0.5–0.6 mg/kg) and NSAIDS for 1 month with partial improvement of pain and the lesion ceased to enlarge. In the following 1 year of follow-up, with only intermittent NSAIDS, her lesion did not progress and there were no signs of systemic involvement or new skin lesions.〈figure xml:id="f1"〉Figure 1 〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1716_1:IJD_1716_f1"/〉(a) A solitary, red to brown plaque with multiple ulcerations and a peripheral elevated yellowish margin on the inner upper thigh〈figure xml:id="f2"〉2〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1716_1:IJD_1716_f2"/〉(a) A dermal and subcutaneous massive xanthogranulomatous infiltrate with zonal necrobiosis of collagen (× 20). (b) Prominent infiltrate of xanthomatized histiocytes and giant cells with perivascular lymphoplasma cells (H&E, × 100)
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction Hair fibers are comprised of non-nucleated keratinocytes and are biologically dead. Clinical damage to the hair shaft occurs with the application of hair dye. Whether this damage can be repaired and the time frame involved is of interest and may help to determine the optimal interval between repeat applications.Aims and methods Ultrastructural changes of hair shafts after application of permanent hair dye were observed sequentially in a 26-year-old woman. The dye contained p-phenylenediamine, m-aminophenol, resorcin and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizer. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy was performed immediately before application of the hair dye and again at 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks.Results The hair showed cuticular swelling with focal degeneration. In some places there was exposure of the hair cortex due to extensive cuticular detachment. There were many holes of various size in the endocuticle, small focal lacunae along the intercellular space and an ill-defined A-layer especially beneath the area of cuticular detachment. The exocuticle appeared normal. The findings were most dramatic in the 6 h and 1 day specimens and tended to improve gradually thereafter. The 8 week specimen showed near complete restoration of the hair cuticle and return to the precoloring state.Conclusion Hair returns to its precoloring state and this requires 8 weeks.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A 31-year-old South Korean woman was referred to the dermatology department from the oncology department for the evaluation of a subcutaneous nodular lesion on the back. Three years before, she noted a palpable, fingertip-sized, nontender mass on her right lower abdomen. The mass had increased in size slowly. One year ago, she visited a local clinic and physical examination revealed a 7 × 8 × 7 cm, slightly tender, deep-seated mass on the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. The mass on the ilial mesentery was resected by surgical exploration and tissue examination revealed leiomyosarcoma. She refused adjuvant chemotherapy.Approximately 3 months later, she re-visited the clinic with a tender, subcutaneous nodule on the back. Cutaneous examination revealed a solitary, 2 × 2 cm, well-defined, hard, movable, subcutaneous nodule on the upper back without skin color change (〈link href="#f3-1"〉Fig. 1). She complained of tenderness on touching the lesion. Histologic examination of a biopsy specimen showed irregularly arranged spindle cells scattered throughout the dermis. They were arranged in haphazardly oriented or interweaving fascicles. Most of the spindle cells possessed elongated nuclei with blunt ends and some cells had a polygonal outline with irregularly shaped nuclei (〈link href="#f3-2"〉Fig. 2). There were many mitoses: 3–4 per high-power (× 400) field. Immunohistochemically, smooth muscle actin and desmin were positive in most of the tumor cells (〈link href="#f3-3"〉Fig. 3). S-100 reactivity was not observed. A diagnosis of metastatic leiomyosarcoma was made. About 1 month later, computed tomography showed two, ill-defined, heterogeneous, low attenuation masses in the right lobe of the liver, suggesting liver metastasis. The patient was treated with chemotherapy for 2 months and remains in good condition.〈figure xml:id="f3-1"〉1〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1254-4:IJD_1254_f3-1"/〉2 × 2 cm, solitary, well-defined, hard, movable, subcutaneous nodule without any overlying skin change〈figure xml:id="f3-2"〉2〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1254-4:IJD_1254_f3-2a"/〉〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1254-4:IJD_1254_f3-2b"/〉(a) Characteristic findings of cutaneous leiomyosarcoma with markedly high cellularity and densely packed transverse and longitudinal fascicles of cells (hematoxylin and eosin, × 40). (b) High magnification of the neoplasm revealing spindle cells with blunt-ended nuclei, pleomorphism, and mitotic figures (hematoxylin and eosin, × 200)〈figure xml:id="f3-3"〉3〈mediaResource alt="image" href="urn:x-wiley:00119059:IJD1254-4:IJD_1254_f3-3"/〉Dense cytoplasmic reactivity for smooth muscle actin is apparent (smooth muscle actin, × 200)
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A cDNA encoding RARF1 (rice ADP-ribosylation factor 1) was isolated from fungal elicitor-treated rice suspension culture cells by mRNA differential display. RARF1 transcripts accumulated in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid (SA) and rapidly in cells inoculated with an avirulent pathogen. Constitutively over-expressed RARF1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV 35S) triggered spontaneous induction of lesion mimics, induced an array of pathogenosis-related (PR) genes, reduced susceptibility to a fungal pathogen, and caused accumulation of SA. From these data, we deduced that RARF1 might be a component of various plant defence signalling pathways involved in inducing the expression of a subset of PR genes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1745-4603
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of heat treatment and incubation temperature on the rheological and microstructural properties of yogurt were studied. A central composite experimental design and response surface methodology were used for data analysis. The rheological properties were determined by dynamic low amplitude oscillation and the amount of spontaneous whey separation was quantified by the volumetric flask test. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to examine the gel structure. The storage moduli of yogurts increased with an increase in heating temperature and a decrease in incubation temperature. The maximum loss tangent value during gelation, permeability, and amount of spontaneous whey separation of yogurts increased with a decrease in heating temperature and with an increase in incubation temperature. These parameters indicated an increased possibility for rearrangements, which was confirmed by presence of large pores in the gel network. Second order polynomial models successfully predicted the effects of heating temperature and incubation temperature on the rheological properties, permeability, and whey separation of yogurts. Whey separation was negatively correlated with storage modulus (r= -0.66), and was positively correlated with the maximum loss tangent (r= 0.63) and permeability (r= 0.78). This study demonstrates that weak yogurt gels, which have high loss tangent values, favor rearrangements in the network and the resulting network has larger pores (high permeability) and exhibits greater whey separation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A new calix[4]-crowned azacrown ether, C51H59NO11S, consisting of four phenyl rings in a 1,3-alternate conformation was synthesized from the reaction of 25,27-bis(5-chloro-3-oxapentyloxy)calix[4]crown-5 and p-toluenesulfonamide in the presence of Cs2CO3. A crown-5 loop was attached on the two facing lower rims of the calix[4]arene and the N-tosyl azacrown group was attached on the other set of lower rims of the calix[4]arene backbone. This molecule seems to offer an inside cavity for the formation of a host–guest complex.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The texturing of the bottom electrode plays a key role in the structure and electrical properties of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films. We fabricated Pt bottom electrodes having a different thickness on MgO single crystals at 600 °C by rf magnetron sputtering. As the thickness of platinum (Pt) thin film increased, the preferred orientation of Pt thin film changed from (200) to (111). PZT thin films were fabricated at 450 °C by electron cyclotron resonance-plasma enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition on the textured Pt thin films. The texturing of the bottom electrode caused drastic changes in the C–V characteristics, P–E characteristics, and fatigue characteristics of metal/ferroelectric material/metal (MFM) capacitors. The difference of the electrical properties between the PZT thin films having different texturing was discussed in terms-of the x–y alignment and the interface between electrode and PZT in MFM capacitors. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 89 (2001), S. 4128-4133 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The microstructural changes of WNx films during annealing were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Amorphous WNx films eventually crystallized to a two-phase mixture of W and W2N through the primary crystallization and eutectic crystallization. The resulting microstructure after annealing at 800 °C consisted of large primary crystals with a eutectic mixture of W and W2N microcrystallites in the intergranular boundary region. In case of the amorphous film with near-eutectic composition of W0.79N0.21, it transformed directly into a two-phase mixture of W and W2N through the eutectic crystallization at 600 °C without the primary crystallization. On the other hand, polycrystalline W2N films had a columnar structure and did not undergo any microstructural change during annealing up to 800 °C. Barrier properties of WNx film versus Cu diffusion are discussed in relation with the microstructural changes of the films. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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