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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Callosotomy ; Corpus callosum ; Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  From September 1989 to August 1996, we performed anterior corpus callosotomy in 83 patients. Unfortunately, 9 patients were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 74 patients, 59 had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (evolved from infantile spasms in 22), 9 had complex partial seizures with or without secondary generalized seizures, 1 had multifocal independent epileptogenic foci (MISF) syndrome, 3 had hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE), and 2 had infantile spasms. All cases were followed up for at least 2 years after surgery. The highest rate of significant improvement (more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency) was noted in the patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, 82.1% of whom experienced significant improvement, followed by those with generalized tonic seizures (76.7%), atonic seizures (72.7%), myoclonic seizures (64.9%), atypical absences (58.6%), and complex partial seizure with or without secondary generalization (61.5%). Complete freedom from seizures was noted in 14 cases (18.9%). One patient had the anterior half of his right palm amputated following radial artery thrombosis complicated by insertion of an arterial line during anesthesia. Otherwise, there were no major postoperative complications except for brief mutism and multifocal jerks in some patients during the 1st postoperative week. Thus, we conclude that corpus callosotomy is a safe alternative treatment for all kinds of medically intractable seizures, especially generalized epilepsy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Seeds with different roasting (140°C to 180°C) and expelling (110°C to 150°C) temperatures were evaluated. The color development of their oils increased as both temperatures increased. The fatty acid compositions did not change, the major one being linoleic acid (80%). There were significant differences in the phosphorus content of oils prepared at different roasting temperatures, which was not the case with oils prepared at different expelling temperatures. The major phospholipid component of oil is phosphatidylinositol. The proportion of phosphatidylinositol in oil increased as both temperatures increased. Phosphatidylethanolamine in oil decreased as roasting temperatures increased. Tocopherols and tocotrienols were identified. The oxidative stabilities increased as both temperatures increased.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Hens were intramuscularly (im) immunized on thighs by using urease (E.C. 3.5.1.5) from Helicobactor pylori as antigen. The specificity of IgY against urease of H. pylori increased gradually after initial immunization. The collected yolk was microencapsulated with 10% or 20%β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and gum arabic by a spray-drier. Microencapsulation was effective in protecting the IgY activity against pepsin. Liposome prepared at the lecithin/ cholesterol ratio of 1/0.25 (mole/mole) displayed satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (69%) of IgY. Increase in cholesterol content in the liposomal structure exhibited a stronger protection effect of IgY against pepsin and acid.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Nitric oxide, including that produced by endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), may regulate vascular and airway tone in the lungs and may influence various aspects of airway homeostasis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is expressed at high levels in the lungs and plays a role in the metabolism of angiotensin II, bradykinin, and substance P, all of which are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. An insertion-deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene has been shown to be associated with enzyme activity levels of ACE. To examine the possible involvement of the ecNOS and/or ACE genes as the genetic basis of bronchial asthma, we investigated whether there was any association between bronchial asthma and polymorphisms of the ecNOS and/or ACE genes. Methods: A total of 310 patients with bronchial asthma and 121 healthy subjects took part in this study. The ecNOS and ACE genotypes were determined in all subjects by polymerase chain reaction. Results: 〈list xml:id="l1" style="custom"〉The distribution of one genotype (bb) of ecNOS was significantly higher in the asthma group than in the control population.The ACE genotype distribution was not significantly different between the control and the asthma groups.In asthmatic patients, the ACE and ecNOS genotype distribution did not differ significantly among groups of patients with different severities of asthma. Conclusions: These results suggest that polymorphisms of the ecNOS gene, but not the ACE gene, may be associated with the development of asthma. However, the severity of asthma may not be influenced by polymorphisms of the ecNOS and ACE genes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airway characterized by airway remodelling, and is due at least in part to an excess of extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the airway wall, which leads to subepithelial collagen deposition. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is the major proteolytic enzyme that induces bronchial remodelling in asthma. MMP-9 is also important in the migration of inflammatory cells through basement membrane components.Objectives We evaluated whether airway inflammatory cells correlated with levels of MMP-9 in acute asthma and we examined the time course of sputum levels of MMP-9 activity in patients with spontaneous asthma exacerbation.Methods We performed zymographic analysis and checked levels of MMP-9 by means of enzyme immunoassay. MMP-9 levels were also evaluated during a spontaneous attack of asthma.Results Pro-MMP-9 activities and concentrations of MMP-9 in asthmatic patients significantly exceeded those of control subjects (P 〈 0.01). The activities of pro-MMP-9 were significantly higher in acute asthmatic patients than in stable asthmatic patients (P 〈 0.01). The elevated MMP-9 activities significantly decreased after 7 and 28 days of therapy. In acute asthmatic patients, the levels of sputum MMP-9 significantly correlated with the total macrophage + neutrophil + eosinophil cell numbers.Conclusion These data suggest that airway inflammation after asthma exacerbation correlates with the overproduction of MMP-9, which then leads to airway remodelling.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Polymorphisms at the glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1 locus were associated with asthma-related phenotypes and bronchial hyper-responsiveness.Objective This study investigated whether GSTP1 genotypes and outdoor air pollution were interactive risk factors on childhood asthma.Methods Four hundred and thirty-six subjects were recruited for oral mucosa samplings from 2853 fourth- to ninth-grade schoolchildren from three districts with different air pollution levels in southern Taiwan. PCR-based assays were performed by oral mucosa DNA to determine GSTP1 genotypes. We also conducted a nested case–control study comprising 61 asthmatic children and 95 controls confirmed by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire results and methacholine challenge test. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounding factors.Results All participants were homozygous at the Ala-114 locus. Although only a marginally significant association existed between the frequency of homozygosity at the Ile-105 locus and asthma when air pollution was not considered, we found a significant gene–environmental interaction between GSTP1–105 alleles and air pollution after adjusting for confounders (P=0.035). Specifically, we found that compared with participants carrying any Val-105 allele in low air pollution, those who are Ile-105 homozygotes in high air pollution district had a significantly increased risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=5.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.64–21.25). Compared with participants carrying any Val-105 allele, in high air pollution district, children with Ile-105 homozygotes had a significantly increased risk of asthma (AOR=3.79, 95% CI=1.01–17.08), but those who carried two Ile-105 alleles in low or moderate air pollution districts did not show similar tendencies. The risk of asthma also revealed a clear dose–response relationship with outdoor air pollution in children with Ile-105 homozygotes.Conclusion Our result suggests a gene–environmental interaction between GSTP1–105 genotypes and outdoor air pollution on childhood asthma.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by airway remodelling due, at least in part, to an excess of extracellular matrix deposition in the airway wall. The ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) may be a marker of the balance between airway tissue destruction and repair.Objective We determined whether an imbalance of the MMP-9 : TIMP-1 molar ratio is present before and/or after challenge with TDI.Methods We used a murine model of TDI-induced asthma to evaluate the MMP-9 and TIMP-1 balance in the lung.Results The expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs and proteins in the lungs increased at 7 h after TDI inhalation and continued for up to 72 h. Immunohistochemical and immunocytological analyses in the lungs of TDI-exposed mice revealed increases of immunoreactive MMP-9 and TIMP-1. There were significant correlations between the levels of MMP-9 or TIMP-1 and the number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, or eosinophils. The molar ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1 significantly decreased at 7 h after TDI inhalation and continued up to 72 h.Conclusion These data suggest that TDI-induced asthma may be associated with an imbalance between MMP-9 and TIMP-1, which could be useful as a marker of airway inflammation and airway remodelling in this disease.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Key words: Polymorphism—Endothelial nitric oxide synthase—Angiotensin-converting enzyme—Lung cancer.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The objectives of this study were to examine the possible involvement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes in the genetic basis of lung cancer. Two hundred eighteen patients with lung cancer and 121 healthy subjects were included in this study. The ecNOS and ACE genotypes were determined in all subjects by polymerase chain reaction. The distribution of genotypes of ecNOS gene was significantly different in the lung cancer group than in the control population. ACE genotype distribution was not significantly different in the lung cancer group compared with the control group. These results suggest that polymorphisms of the ecNOS gene, but not the ACE gene, may be associated with the development of lung cancer.
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