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  • 2000-2004  (63)
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Year
  • 1
    Unknown
    Champaign, Ill : Project Gutenberg
    Keywords: Computer networks, United States, History. ; Internet, History.
    ISBN: 0-585-01245-8
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  • 2
    Call number: QH442.2:19/1
    Keywords: Biotechnology ; Bioethics ; Biotechnology / legislation & jurisprudence ; Health Policy ; United States
    Description / Table of Contents: Volume 1 - 2
    Notes: "A Wiley-Interscience publication."
    Pages: 2 v. ( xiii, 1132 p.) : ill.
    ISBN: 0471176125
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    QH442.2:19/1 available
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Nephrology 7 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY: Studies of hypoxia-inducible cis-acting sequences from the erythropoietin gene have led to the recognition of a widespread transcriptional response to hypoxia based on the activation of a DNA-binding complex, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF). Genes with functions in cellular energy metabolism, iron metabolism, catecholamine metabolism, vasomotor control and angiogenesis have subsequently been shown to be responsive to HIF, indicating a role in the coordination of oxygen supply and cellular metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a heterodimer of two basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS family, HIF-1 alpha and HIF-1 beta, although different isoforms of each subunit are now known to exist. When oxygen tension is lowered, HIF-alpha subunits dimerize with HIF-beta and activate gene transcription. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated gene transcription is regulated predominantly by oxygen-dependent destruction of HIF-alpha via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. This destruction is mediated by a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex, in which the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein (pVHL) recognizes and binds oxygen-dependent destruction domain(s) in HIF-alpha subunits. In VHL disease, the destruction of HIF-alpha is blocked, at least partly explaining the phenotype. the recognition of HIF-alpha by pVHL in normoxia has recently been shown to be conditional on enzymatic post-translational hydroxylation of critical prolyl residues. It is hoped that a detailed understanding of these gene regulatory mechanisms may lead to therapeutically useful interventions in the future, for example by up-regulating HIF activity in ischaemic disease or down-regulating it in cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the possibility that monoaminergic axons make contacts with spinal interneurons which project to motor nuclei and are monosynaptically activated by group II muscle afferents. Interneurons in midlumbar spinal segments of adult cats were characterized electrophysiologically and intracellularly labelled with tetramethylrhodamine dextran. Serotoninergic and noradrenergic axons were identified with immunofluorescence in sections containing labelled cells. Contacts between monoaminergic axons and interneurons were investigated with three-colour confocal laser scanning microscopy and analysed with a computer reconstruction program. Cell bodies and dendritic trees of five cells were reconstructed and putative contacts were plotted. The average number of contacts formed by serotoninergic axons was 140 and the average number of noradrenergic contacts was 38. The majority (95%) of contacts were formed with dendrites; these were distributed over the entire dendritic tree, even on the most distal branches. These findings provide a morphological basis for the modulatory actions of monoamines on premotor spinal interneurons in pathways from group II muscle afferents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Serotonin selectively depresses transmission of nociceptive information through the spinal dorsal horn but the mechanisms of this depression are poorly understood. In this study we report that serotonin-containing axons form basket-like clusters which are intimately woven around cell bodies and proximal dendrites of a subpopulation (≈ 50%) of laminae III/IV neurons which possess the neurokinin-1 receptor. Statistical analysis confirms that cells belonging to this subpopulation have significantly higher numbers of serotoninergic contacts on proximal dendrites when compared with the population of neurokinin-1 cells that are not associated with clusters (mean ± SD = 13 ± 5.8 and 5 ± 2.9, respectively). Neurokinin-1 cells in laminae III/IV project to regions of the brain which are involved in nociceptive processing and are likely to be activated predominantly by nociceptive input. The concentration of serotoninergic axons around proximal regions of some of these cells indicates that serotonin may have a powerful influence on transmission through this pathway. This type of arrangement could be a morphological correlate for at least part of the selective antinociceptive actions of serotonin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2524
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This mainly qualitative study compared 40 families’ experience of hospital and home care. This is one aspect of a randomised, controlled trial, which aimed to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of a paediatric hospital at home service (HAH) for acute illness in children. This paper builds upon previous work that has aimed to examine parents’ and children’s views as service users. Forty families from a larger sample population took part in structured interviews. Eleven children aged 5 to 12 years took part in semistructured interviews. A drawing technique was the chosen method of augmentation in the children’s interviews. Research findings showed that HAH is an acceptable alternative to hospital care where there are essentially nursing needs. Thirty-six (90%) parents and seven children stated a clear preference for HAH. The parents’ preference was based on a perception that their child’s illness wasn’t serious or life threatening and therefore could be managed at home with appropriate support from health professionals. The social and financial costs of hospital care compared with HAH were the other main drivers, rather than a comparison of the quality of nursing care of their child.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Pty
    Nephrology 7 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY: Studies of hypoxia-inducible cis-acting sequences from the erythropoietin gene have led to the recognition of a widespread transcriptional response to hypoxia based on the activation of a DNA-binding complex, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF). Genes with functions in cellular energy metabolism, iron metabolism, catecholamine metabolism, vasomotor control and angiogenesis have subsequently been shown to be responsive to HIF, indicating a role in the coordination of oxygen supply and cellular metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a heterodimer of two basic helix–loop–helix proteins of the PAS family, HIF-1 alpha and HIF-1 beta, although different isoforms of each subunit are now known to exist. When oxygen tension is lowered, HIF-alpha subunits dimerize with HIF-beta and activate gene transcription. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated gene transcription is regulated predominantly by oxygen-dependent destruction of HIF-alpha via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. This destruction is mediated by a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex, in which the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein (pVHL) recognizes and binds oxygen-dependent destruction domain(s) in HIF-alpha subunits. In VHL disease, the destruction of HIF-alpha is blocked, at least partly explaining the phenotype. The recognition of HIF-alpha by pVHL in normoxia has recently been shown to be conditional on enzymatic post-translational hydroxylation of critical prolyl residues. It is hoped that a detailed understanding of these gene regulatory mechanisms may lead to therapeutically useful interventions in the future, for example by up-regulating HIF activity in ischaemic disease or down-regulating it in cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have generated embryonic stem (ES) cells and transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) inserted into the Pitx3 locus via homologous recombination. In the central nervous system, Pitx3-directed GFP was visualized in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Live primary DA neurons can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from these transgenic mouse embryos. In culture, Pitx3–GFP is coexpressed in a proportion of ES-derived DA neurons. Furthermore, ES cell-derived Pitx3–GFP expressing DA neurons responded to neurotrophic factors and were sensitive to DA-specific neurotoxin N-4-methyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine. We anticipate that the Pitx3–GFP ES cells could be used as a powerful model system for functional identification of molecules governing mDA neuron differentiation and for preclinical research including pharmaceutical drug screening and transplantation. The Pitx3 knock-in mice, on the other hand, could be used for purifying primary neurons for molecular studies associated with the midbrain-specific DA phenotype at a level not previously feasible. These mice would also provide a useful tool to study DA fate determination from embryo- or adult-derived neural stem cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Modulatory actions of monoamines were investigated on spinal commissural interneurons which coordinate left–right hindlimb muscle activity through direct projections to the contralateral motor nuclei. Commissural interneurons located in Rexed lamina VIII, with identified projections to the contralateral gastrocnemius–soleus motor nuclei, were investigated in deeply anaesthetized cats. Most interneurons had dominant input from either the reticular formation or from group II muscle afferents; a small proportion of neurons had input from both. Actions of ionophoretically applied serotonin and noradrenaline were examined on extracellularly recorded spikes evoked monosynaptically by group II muscle afferents or reticulospinal tract fibres. Activation by reticulospinal fibres was facilitated by both serotonin and noradrenaline. Activation by group II afferents was also facilitated by serotonin but was strongly depressed by noradrenaline. To investigate the possible morphological substrates of this differential modulation, seven representative commissural interneurons were labelled intracellularly with tetramethylrhodamine–dextran and neurobiotin. Contacts from noradrenergic and serotoninergic fibres were revealed by immunohistochemistry and analysed with confocal microscopy. There were no major differences in the numbers and distributions of contacts among the interneurons studied. The findings suggest that differences in modulatory actions of monoamines, and subsequent changes in the recruitment of subpopulations of commissural interneurons in various behavioural situations, depend on intrinsic interneuron properties rather than on the patterns of innervation by monoaminergic fibres. The different actions of noradrenaline on different populations of interneurons might permit reconfiguration of the actions of the commissural neurons according to behavioural context.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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