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  • 2000-2004  (77)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In mice, there is evidence suggesting that the development of head and trunk structures is organized by distinctly separated cell populations. The head organizer is located in the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) and the trunk organizer in the node and anterior primitive streak. In ...
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  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  68. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 90. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie und 45. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20041019-20041023; Berlin; DOC04dguN5-533 /20041019/
    Publication Date: 2004-10-20
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2218
    Keywords: Key words: Bile duct injury — Cholangiography — Common bile duct calculi — Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: The routine use of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains controversial. Methods: A retrospective review of 950 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed during an 8-year period was performed. For the first 2 years, IOC was performed selectively, and thereafter routinely. Results: Attempted in 896 patients, IOC was successful in 734 (82%). Bile duct stones were found in 77 patients (10%), dilated ducts without stones in 47 patients (6%), and anatomic variations in 4 patients (0.5%). There were four (0.4%) minor intraoperative complications related to the IOC, with no consequences for the patients. There were three (0.3%) minor injuries of the bile duct, which were identified with IOC and repaired at the time of cholecystectomy without any consequences for the patients. In two of these patients, the structure recognized and catheterized as the cystic duct was revealed by IOC to be the bile duct. Thus IOC prevented extension to a major common bile duct (CBD) injury. Conclusions: Findings show that IOC is a safe technique. Its routine use during laparoscopic cholecystectomy may not prevent bile duct injuries, but it minimizes the extent of the injury so that it can be repaired easily without any consequences for the patient. The prevention of a major bile duct injury makes IOC cost effective.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0460
    Keywords: Key words: Modified barium swallow — Dysphagia — Swallow database — Modified barium swallow outcomes — Deglutition —Deglutition disorders.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the immediate and clinically relevant information gained from the modified barium swallow study and to determine the impact of the procedure on patient management. A database containing a nonrandom sample of 608 swallowing studies was reviewed. Results showed that only 10.4% of the studies were classified as normal examinations and aspiration occurred in 32.4%. However, swallowing abnormality without aspiration was recorded in 57.2% of the studies. Five additional outcome variables were assessed: referrals made to other specialties, effectiveness of applied compensatory strategies, treatment recommendations, mode of intake change, and diet grade change. Nearly 83% of the 608 studies showed change in at least one of the variables: needed referral to a specialist was identified on 26.3%; compensatory strategies that improved swallow physiology were identified on 48.4%; swallowing therapy was recommended on 37.2%; changes in mode of intake occurred on 31.4%; and diet texture changes were recommended on 43.8%. The low percentage of normal studies coupled with the high percentage of change in measurable variables indicate high clinical utility for the modified barium swallow study. The misguided tendency to refer to the modified barium study only as a tool for identifying aspiration and the appropriate utilization of the examination for identification of underlying abnormality in swallowing physiology are explained.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 77 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are neuroprotective for subpopulations of sensory neurons and thus are candidates for pain treatment. However, delivering these factors to damaged neurons will invariably result in undamaged systems also being treated, with possible consequences for sensory processing. In sensory neurons the purinergic receptor P2X3 is found predominantly in GDNF-sensitive nociceptors. ATP signalling via the P2X3 receptor may contribute to pathological pain, suggesting an important role for this receptor in regulating nociceptive function. We therefore investigated the effects of intrathecal GDNF or NGF on P2X3 expression in adult rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In control spinal cords, P2X3 expression was restricted to a narrow band of primary afferent terminals within inner lamina II (IIi). Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor treatment increased P2X3 immunoreactivity within lamina IIi but not elsewhere in the cord. Nerve growth factor treatment, however, induced novel P2X3 expression, with intense immunoreactivity in axons projecting to lamina I and outer lamina II and to the ventro-medial afferent bundle beneath the central canal. In the normal DRG, we found a greater proportion of P2X3-positive neurons at cervical levels, many of which were large-diameter and calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive. In both cervical and lumbar DRG, the number of P2X3-positive cells increased following GDNF or NGF treatment. De novo expression of P2X3 in NGF-sensitive nociceptors may contribute to chronic inflammatory pain.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background:  Numerous prior studies have reported that a substantially higher dose of epoetin is required to maintain haemoglobin (Hb) concentration when patients are switched from a subcutaneous (SC) to intravenous (IV) route of administration. Many of the reported trials, however, involved patients who did not have adequate serum iron levels. It was hypothesized that patients with adequate iron stores who are switched from one route of administration to the other without a change in dose will experience substantially less change in their Hb concentration.Methods:  Haemodialysis patients who were iron replete (ferritin 300–800 µg/L, transferrin saturation (TSAT) 25–50%) participated in a prospective, randomized cross-over trial receiving epoetin for 3 months either by SC or IV injection followed by a further 3 months of epoetin via the other route. The principal aim was to determine changes in Hb concentration without altering the weekly epoetin dose. The secondary aim was to assess whether the frequency of dosing (once, twice or thrice weekly) influenced the Hb concentration response.Results:  Eighty-one patients (mean age 62 years, 60% male) entered the study and 15 withdrew prior to study completion. Forty-three patients began SC epoetin alfa administration (group A) and 38 on IV (group B). Median ferritin and TSAT at entry for groups A and B were 409 and 394 µg/L (NS) and 31 and 32% (NS), respectively, which remained within the target range during the study. Median epoetin doses for groups A and B were similar (90 vs 93 IU/kg per week, NS). After 3 months, the mean Hb concentration rose for group A (SC; 118.7–121.9 g/L (P = 0.03)) but it fell for group B (IV; 119.1–116.0 g/L (P = 0.019)). Following the change in route of administration, the Hb concentration for group A (IV) fell by 5.1% over 3 months (121.9–115.4, P 〈 0.001) and rose by 2.8% for group B (SC) over 3 months (116.0–119.7, P = 0.001). Similar significant changes in the Hb concentration were seen at different dosing frequencies.Conclusion:  Subcutaneuos administration of epoetin produces a significant, although slight clinical change in Hb concentration compared with IV administration in stable, iron replete, haemodialysis patients. A similar effect appears to prevail regardless of the frequency of injections given.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Melbourne, Australia : Blackwell Science Pty
    Nephrology 9 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background and Aims:  Acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients has a high morbidity and mortality. We observed a number of patients presenting with Legionella pneumonia and acute renal failure who subsequently developed acute cholecystitis. There has previously been no reported association between Legionella pneumonia, renal failure and cholecystitis, prompting this examination of the cases and review of the available literature.Methods:  The Western Hospital patient record discharge codes (DRG) from 1993 to 2001 were searched retrospectively for all cases of Legionella pneumonia or acute renal failure requiring dialysis (ARF) at presentation or during their period of hospitalization. Acute cholecystitis was then included as a cross-search and results analysed.Results:  Twenty-six cases of isolated Legionella pneumonia and 112 of ARF were identified with a further 10 having both conditions simultaneously. Of these 10 cases, three were identified as also having acute cholecystitis. The combination of Legionella pneumonia and ARF was associated with an increased risk of acute cholecystitis (P = 0.002) whereas neither condition in isolation demonstrated this association.Conclusions:  Patients with Legionella pneumonia can become critically ill with multiple complications including acute renal failure requiring dialysis. In this setting, they may have an increased risk of developing acute cholecystitis, which clinically can be difficult to ascertain. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and vigilance.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Nephrology 7 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SUMMARY: During her first pregnancy, a 26-year-old-woman developed symptoms of severe preeclampsia at 23 weeks gestation. Fetal death in utero was confirmed shortly after presentation. A similar event at 13 weeks gestation in her second pregnancy prompted further investigation. She was found to have a rare form of haemolytic anaemia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). Supportive management with prednisolone and anticoagulation enabled the gestation to continue and she was delivered successfully at 34 weeks.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Double-mutant mice (DKO) lacking the two voltage-gated K+ channels Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 display a series of phenotypic alterations that include ataxia, myoclonus, tremor and alcohol hypersensitivity. The prominent cerebellar expression of mRNAs encoding Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 subunits raised the question as to whether altered electrical activity resulting from the lack of these K+ channels might be related to the dramatic motor changes. We used the tremorogenic agent harmaline to probe mutant mice lacking different K+ channel alleles for altered olivocerebellar circuit properties. Harmaline induced the characteristic 13-Hz tremor in wildtype mice (WT); however, no tremor was observed in DKO suggesting that the ensemble properties of the olivocerebellar circuitry are altered in the absence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 subunits. Harmaline induced tremor in Kv3.1-single mutants, but it was of smaller amplitude and at a lower frequency indicating the participation of Kv3.1 subunits in normal olivocerebellar system function. In contrast, harmaline tremor was virtually absent in Kv3.3-single mutants indicating an essential role for Kv3.3 subunits in tremor induction by harmaline. Immunohistochemical staining for Kv3.3 showed clear expression in the somata and proximal dendrites of Purkinje cells and in their axonal projections to the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). In DCN, both Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 subunits are expressed. Action potential duration is increased by ≈ 100% in Purkinje cells from Kv3.3-single mutants compared to WT or Kv3.1-single mutants. We conclude that Kv3.3 channel subunits are essential for the olivocerebellar system to generate and sustain normal harmaline tremor whereas Kv3.1 subunits influence tremor amplitude and frequency.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Addiction 97 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1360-0443
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Although a number of socioeconomic forces have converged across cultures to make fathering one of the more prominent social issues of the new millennium, the status of substance-abusing men as fathers is rarely acknowledged in the conceptualization of public policy, service delivery or research focusing on the adverse consequences of drug and alcohol abuse. In this commentary, the authors call for the substance abuse research community to expand understanding of fathering occurring across cultures in the context of chronic substance abuse. Building upon research being undertaken with other populations of fathers, the authors argue there is need to clarify (a) the number of substance-abusing fathers, (b) patterns of reproduction among substance-abusing men, (c) ways in which substance abuse contributes to compromise of fathering, (d) ways in which compromise of fathering contributes to psychological distress in substance-abusing men, (e) ways in which compromise of fathering affects developmental outcomes for children, and (f) ways in which clinical and preventive intervention might be used to minimize the harm associated with paternal substance abuse.
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