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  • 2000-2004  (4)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Ground beef patties containing 2 fat levels (5%, 10%), and 3 fat-substitutes (LeanBind, Rice* Complete 3, and Sta-Slim 171) were processed using 3 cooking methods (microwave, roasting, and pan-frying). Correlation analyses between patty quality and the physical properties of the fat-substitutes, as well as the composition of both raw and cooked patties were conducted. Regression models of patty quality parameters as functions of the physical properties of the fat-substitutes, and as the function of the patty composition were developed. This work demonstrated that the fat-substitutes can be evaluated based on regression models relating patty quality to the physical properties of the fat-substitutes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 67 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Using the hurdle approach, temperature, acidity, and number of pulses were varied to maximize microbial inactivation in orange juice. The effect of PEF combined with the addition of nisin, lysozyme, or a combination of both to orange juice was also investigated. Optimal conditions consisting of 20 pulses of an electric field of 80 kV/ cm, at pH 3.5, and a temperature of 44 °C with 100 U nisin/ml resulted in over a 6-log cycle reduction in the microbial population. The process was most influenced by a change in temperature (p 〈 0.0001). Following treatment, there was a 97.5% retention of vitamin C, along with a 92.7% reduction in pectinmethylesterase activity. The microbial shelf-life of the orange juice was also improved and determined to be at least 28 d when stored at 4 °C without aseptic packaging. Gas chromatography revealed no significant differences in aroma compounds before and after pulsing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 67 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The inactivation of naturally occurring microorganisms in raw skim milk by pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment alone and combined with the antimicrobial agents nisin and lysozyme, added both singly and together, was investigated. A 7.0-log reduction of microorganisms found in raw skim milk was achieved through a combination of PEF treatment (80 kV/cm, 50 pulses), mild heat (52 °C), and the addition of both the natural antimicrobials nisin (38 IU/mL) and lysozyme (1638 IU/mL). The combination of PEF, mild heat, and antimicrobials resulted in a much higher microbial inactivation than the sum of the individual reductions achieved from each treatment alone, indicating synergy. Varying the pH from 6.7 to 5.0 had no effect on microbial inactivation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict heat and mass transfer during deep-fat frying of infinite slab-shaped foods coated with edible films. Frying time, slab half-thickness, film thickness, food initial temperature, oil temperature, moisture diffusivity of food and film, fat diffusivity through food and film, thermal diffusivity of food, heat transfer coefficient, initial moisture content of food, and initial fat content of food (mfo) were inputs. Temperature at the center (T1), average temperature (Tave), fat content (mfave), and moisture content (mave) of food were outputs. Four ANNs with 50 nodes each in 2 hidden layers with learning rate = 0.7 and momentum = 0.7 provided most accurate outputs, that is maximum absolute errors for T1 and Tave were 〈 1.2 °C, 〈 0.004 db for mave, and 〈 0.003 db for mfave. The predictions of mf varied linearly with mf.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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