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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Key words:Hip fracture – Morbidity – Osteoporosis – Quality of life
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: To examine longitudinal change in health- related quality of life (HRQoL) following hip fracture in elderly subjects, 32 patients with hip fractures and 29 sex-matched non-fracture control subjects (mean ± SD age 82 ± 8 and 86 ± 6 years respectively) were enrolled in a prospective, case–control study. Fracture subjects completed a generic questionnaire, Short Form 36 (SF-36), and a disease-targeted measure, the revised Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire (OPAQ2), on two separate occasions, within 1 week of fracture and 12–15 weeks after fracture. Controls completed both questionnaires on two occasions 12 weeks apart. SF-36 scores were significantly correlated with OPAQ2 in comparable domains of Physical Function (r= 0.76), General Health (r= 0.70) and Mental Health/Tension (r = 0.86). Control subjects had stable scores with the OPAQ2 and SF-36. At 3 months after fracture there was a significant reduction in HRQoL in the SF-36 domains Physical Function (–51%), Vitality (–24%) and Social Function (–26%) and in the OPAQ2 domains Physical Function (–20%), Social Activity (–49%) and General Health (–24%). Hip fracture patients thus had a lower baseline HRQoL and experienced a significant deterioration in HRQoL after hip fracture on both the SF-36 and OPAQ2. HRQoL should be part of a comprehensive assessment of the costs of osteoporosis including fracture-associated morbidity.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Keywords Driving reaction ; ACL reconstruction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract Driving reaction time was studied in 73 patients under anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a computer-linked automobile simulator. Each patient was tested pre-operatively and 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after surgery. Stepping and standing tests were studied at each time point. Twenty-five normal subjects were also tested as controls. Pre-operative test results did not differ significantly between groups on any of the tests. Post-operatively it took 6 weeks for driving reaction time of the right ACL group to be equivalent to that of the controls, compared to 2 weeks in the left ACL group. There was a strong correlation between the stepping and standing tests and the driving reaction time; this made them good clinical tests to monitor patients’ progress and to suggest the appropriate time to resume driving.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Stroke ; Prostaglandin ; Inflammation ; Tissue remodeling ; Secondary injury
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cyclooxygenases (COX; prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases) are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostanoids which mediate inflammation, immunomodulation, mitogenesis, ovulation, fewer, apoptosis and blood flow. Here, we report COX-1 expression following focal cerebral infarctions (FCI). In healthy control brains, COX-1 was localized by immunohistochemistry to a few endothelial cells, single neurons and rare, evenly distributed brain microglia/macrophages. In infarctioned brains, COX-1+ cells accumulated highly significantly (P 〈 0.0001) in peri-infarctional areas and in the developing necrotic core early after infarction. Here, cell numbers remained persistently elevated up to several months post infarction. Further, clusters of COX-1+ cells were located in perivascular regions related to the Virchow-Robin space. Double-labeling experiments confirmed co-expression of COX-1 by CD68+ microglia/macrophages. Co-expression of the activation antigens HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ (MHC class II) or the macrophage inhibitor factor-related protein MRP-8 (S100A8) by most COX-1+ microglia/macrophages was only seen early after infarction. Thus, COX-1 appeared to be expressed in microglial cells regardless of their activation state. However, the prolonged accumulation of COX-1+ microglia/macrophages restricted to peri-infarctional areas enduring the acute post-ischemic inflammatory response points to a role of COX-1 in tissue remodeling or in the pathophysiology of secondary injury. We have identified localized, accumulated COX-1 expression as a potential pharmacological target following FCI. Therefore we suggest that therapeutic approaches based on selective COX-2 blocking might ¶not be sufficient for suppressing the local synthesis of prostanoids.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Pollutant degradation in biotrickling filters for waste air treatment is generally thought to occur only in the biofilm. In two experiments with toluene degrading biotrickling filters, we show that suspended microorganisms in the recycle liquid may substantially contribute to the overall pollutant removal. Two days after reactor start up, the overall toluene elimination capacity reached a maximum of 125 g m−3 h−1, which was twice that found during prolonged operation. High biodegradation activity in the recycle liquid fully accounted for this short-term peak of pollutant elimination. During steady-state operation, the toluene degradation in the recycle liquid was 21% of the overall elimination capacity, although the amount of suspended biomass was only 1% of the amount of immobilized biomass. The results suggest that biotrickling filter performance may be improved by selecting operating conditions allowing for the development of an actively growing suspended culture.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Diphenylene iodonium ; Oxidative burst ; NADH oxidase ; Rosa damascena ; Fluorescence spectrum ; Pterin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary An NADH-specific oxidation reduction enzyme has been partially purified from rose cell microsomes by aqueous two-phase partitioning, ultracentrifugation, and ion-exchange chromatography, on the basis of the enzyme's ability to activate lucigenin chemiluminescence in the presence of NADH. The enzyme showed strong similarity to a plasma membrane NADH oxidase (“superoxide synthase” as assayed by lucigenin chemiluminescence; T. M. Murphy and C.-K. Auh, Plant Physiol. 110: 621–629, 1996) in its response to substrate, to Triton X-100, and to diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of mammalian neutrophil NADPH oxidase and other flavoenzymes. However, its fluorescence spectrum was not characteristic of flavins and instead was similar to that of pterins. Thus inhibition of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction by diphenylene iodonium does not necessarily imply that the reaction is catalyzed by NADPH oxidase or another flavoenzyme. Superoxide synthesis catalyzed by the enzyme preparation was very low but could be increased at least twofold by the addition of a quinone, menadione. This suggests the enzyme acting in conjunction with a natural quinone could produce activated oxygen species in stressed plant cells.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective To assess the association between gestational age estimated from the last menstrual period (GALMP) or from the biparietal diameter (GABPD), and the subsequent birthweight for gestational age.Design Population-based follow up study.Setting Of 21,936 pregnancies contained in the ultrasound database, 16,387 singleton pregnancies with a reliable last menstrual period date and an ultrasound examination between 12 and 22 weeks of gestation were included.Main outcome measures Correlation between: 1. birthweight deviation (birthweight-expected weight for gestation); 2. birthweight; and 3. pregnancy length and (GALMP-GABPD). Relative risk of birthweight 〈 2500 g and low birthweight for gestation (〉 22% below normal weight) related to five levels of discrepancy between (GALMP-GABPD).Results (GALMP-GABPD) was not associated with deviation of birthweight related to GABPD However the risk of low birthweight (〈 2500 g) and low birthweight for gestational age was significantly increased when (GALMP-GABPD) was 〉 7 days.Conclusion A biparietal diameter smaller than expected from the last menstrual period date is mainly a problem of an error related to estimated time of ovulation. At the same time the relative risk of a low birthweight infant is slightly increased.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Key words: Empyema—Streptokinase—Urokinase—Streptodornase—Pleura.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Patients with loculated parapneumonic effusion or empyema are sometimes treated with streptokinase or urokinase in an attempt to facilitate pleural fluid drainage by liquefying the pleural exudate and destroying the fibrin membranes producing the loculation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of streptokinase, urokinase, and Varidase (the combination of streptokinase and streptodornase) in liquefying gummy, purulent, exudative material from loculated empyemas. An empyema was created by injecting 108 Pasteurella multocida bacteria into the pleural space of New Zealand white rabbits. Twenty specimens, each containing 0.5 g of purulent material obtained 5 days after empyema induction, were placed in test tubes. Streptokinase (15,000 IU), urokinase (10,000 IU), Varidase (4,000–15,000 IU streptodornase + 15,000 IU streptokinase) or saline was added to five sets of four test tubes each. The amount of nonliquefied material that remained after incubation with the fibrinolytic agents was quantitated. Over the 6-h incubation period, the amount of nonliquefied material decreased from 0.5 g to 0.02 g in the Varidase group but never decreased to less than 0.4 g in any of the other three treatment groups. Liquefaction of thick pleural exudates from rabbits with empyema can be achieved with Varidase but not with streptokinase or urokinase.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 113 (2000), S. 1110-1125 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Screening of a macroion such as a charged solid particle, a charged membrane, double helix DNA, or actin by multivalent counterions is considered. Small colloidal particles, charged micelles, short or long polyelectrolytes can play the role of multivalent counterions. Due to strong lateral repulsion at the surface of the macroion such multivalent counterions form a strongly-correlated liquid, with the short-range order resembling that of a Wigner crystal. These correlations create additional binding of multivalent counterions to the macroion surface with binding energy larger than kBT. As a result even for a moderate concentration of multivalent counterions in the solution, their total charge at the surface of the macroion exceeds the bare macroion charge in absolute value. Therefore, the net charge of the macroion inverts its sign. In the presence of a high concentration of monovalent salt the absolute value of inverted charge can be larger than the bare one. This strong inversion of charge can be observed by electrophoresis or by direct counting of multivalent counterions. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 112 (2000), S. 2562-2568 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A theory of condensation and resolubilization of a dilute DNA solution with growing concentration of multivalent cations, N, is suggested. It is based on a new theory of screening of a macroion by multivalent cations, which shows that due to strong cation correlations at the surface of DNA the net charge of DNA changes sign at some small concentration of cations N0. DNA condensation takes place in the vicinity of N0, where absolute value of the DNA net charge is small and the correlation induced short range attraction dominates the Coulomb repulsion. At N〉N0 positive DNA should move in the opposite direction in an electrophoresis experiment. From comparison of our theory with experimental values of condensation and resolubilization thresholds for DNA solution containing Spe4+, we obtain that N0=3.2 mM and that the energy of DNA condensation per nucleotide is 0.07 kBT. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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