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  • 2000-2004  (11)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2621
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: White fonio (Digitaria exilis) and California blackeye cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flours were used in sugar cookie preparation. Formulations were: (1) 100% wheat, (2) 50% wheat/50% fonio, (3) 50% wheat/50% cowpea, (4) 33% wheat/33% fonio/33% cowpea, (5) 25% wheat/75% fonio, (6) 25% wheat/50% fonio/25% cowpea, (7) 75% fonio/25% cowpea and (8) 50% fonio/50% cowpea. The 100% wheat cookies had the greatest spread ratio (5.86) and the 75% wheat/25% cowpea the least (4.39). The 50% fonio/50% cowpea cookies required the most force (720.3 N) to shear and the 50% wheat/50% fonio the least (399.4 N). The 100% wheat and the 50% wheat/50% cowpea cookies had the lightest colour and the 25% wheat/75% fonio the darkest. Sensory panel assessments of appearance, colour and texture were not affected by component flours. Cookies containing 100% wheat or 50% wheat /50% fonio received the highest hedonic ratings for flavour (7.1 and 6.7, respectively) and overall acceptability (6.9 and 6.5, respectively). All other formulations were unacceptable.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Free oil separation is a problem in “natural” peanut butter. Studies have indicated that palm oil functions as an effective stabilizer in peanut butter. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of palm oil on microstructural features of peanut butter. Samples containing 0, 1.5 and 2.5% palm oil and a control containing hydrogenated vegetable oils were prepared and stored at 0C and 45C for 130 days. Microstructure was examined by light microscopy. Addition of palm oil in peanut butter markedly increased spatial distribution of protein bodies and cell wall fragments when compared to nonstabilized products. Palm oil has potential as a stabilizer in peanut butter, but shelf-life stability is likely to be less than that achieved with presently used stabilizers, at elevated temperatures due to a less stable microstructure resulting in a lower level of solid dispersion in the continuous oil phase.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1745-459X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Roasted peanuts were stored at 20 treatment combinations of water activities (0.33, 0.44, 0.54, 0.67, 0.75) and temperatures (23, 30, 35, 40C), and evaluated after storing for 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 110% of estimated shelf life, ranging from 0 to 91 days. Regression models indicated that increasing storage time and storage water activity resulted in decreasing crispness, crunchiness, hardness, roasted peanutty, sweet aromatic, salty, bitter and sweet attributes and increasing fracturability, chewiness, tooth packing and cardboard flavor. Storage temperature did not contribute to regression models of textural properties of roasted peanuts. Increasing storage temperature resulted in a faster rate of decrease for roasted peanutty and faster rate of increase of cardboard flavor. Roasted peanuts stored between 0.33 and 0.41 a w at 23C are predicted to have the least change in sensory properties after 68 and 91 days respectively.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of electron-beam irradiated commercial samples of ready-to-eat meats (frankfurters and diced chicken) were evaluated. Samples were removed from their original packaging, repackaged in irradiation-approved packaging, vacuum-sealed, irradiated by electron-beam at 1, 2 and 3 kGy and stored at 4C for up to 32 days. Nonirradiated controls were held under similar conditions. A consumer panel (n = 50) evaluated the effects of irradiation on the samples throughout the expected shelf life of 32 days after irradiation. Overall acceptance, acceptance of flavor, juiciness, tenderness and mouthfeel of the nonirradiated diced chicken and frankfurters were significantly lower (P 〈 0.05) than most irradiated samples at day 18 and day 32 after irradiation, respectively. Although the quality of the irradiated samples decreased with increasing storage time, consumers perceived that the irradiated frankfurters and diced chicken maintained their acceptability for up to 32 and 18 days, respectively, after irradiation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1745-4549
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Descriptive analysis (D) was used to compare sensory attribute intensities of peanut butter stabilized in palm oil (PO) and unstabilized peanut butter (UPB) to consumer acceptance scores (C). A relationship (R2=0.5) existed between the ratings of consumer attribute overall and descriptive attribute spreadability and brown color; color (C) and brown color (D) and oiliness (D); oiliness (C) and brown color (D), stickiness (D), oiliness (D) and spreadability (D); and spreadability (C) with spreadability (D). There were no linear relations between the consumer terms texture and flavor with any of the descriptive attributes. Significant differences existed between the treatments in the descriptive attributes of brown color, raw flavor, hardness, gumminess and spreadability. Significant differences also existed between treatments for all of the consumer attributes.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of sensory studies 19 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1745-459X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Response surface methodology was used to optimize formulations of chocolate peanut spread. Thirty-six formulations with varying levels of peanut (25-90%), chocolate (5-70%) and sugar (5-55%) were processed using a three-component constrained simplex lattice design. The processing variable, roast (light, medium, dark) was also included in the design. Response variables, measured with consumers (n = 60) participating in the test, were spreadability, overall acceptability, appearance, color, flavor, sweetness and texture/mouthfeel, using a 9-point hedonic scale. Regression analysis was performed and models were built for each significant (p 〈 0.01) response variable. Contour plots for each attribute, at each level of roast, were generated and superimposed to determine areas of overlap. Optimum formulations (consumer acceptance rating of ≥ 6.0 for all attributes) for chocolate peanut spread were all combinations of 29-65% peanut, 9-41% chocolate, and 17-36% sugar, adding up to 100%, at a medium roast. Verification of two formulations indicated no difference between predicted and observed values.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 68 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Studies have shown that palm oil is an effective stabilizer in peanut butter. The objective of our investigation was to better define the role of palm oil as a stabilizer. Peanut butters without and with palm oil added at concentrations of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% (w/w of peanuts), and Fix-X™ (hydrogenated rapeseed and cottonseed oils as commercial control) were stored at 0, 21, 30, and 45 °C for 23 wk. Palm oil improved the oil holding capacity (OHC) of peanut butters, but had no effect on their adhesiveness and hardness characteristics. The unstabilized and palm oil-stabilized peanut butters were not as good as the Fix-X™ stabilized peanut butters with regard to their OHC, hardness, and adhesiveness characteristics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 67 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Two commercial peanut butters and 3 laboratory-prepared peanut butters containing 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5% stabilizer were evaluated by sensory and instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) using an Instron. A 2×3 factorial design consisting of crosshead speeds of 5 and 50 mm/min, and amount and type of fluid added was used. A descriptive panel (n= 11) was used to evaluate 14 sensory TPA attributes. Twelve sensory TPA attributes, compared with only 2 found by other researchers, were highly correlated (〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00221147:JFDS1939:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉 0.88) with 1 or more instrumental TPA parameters. Prediction models (R 〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00221147:JFDS1939:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉 0.71) developed successfully predicted 12 sensory texture attributes from instrumental TPA results. Eleven models, excluding surface roughness, were successfully verified with 0.74 to 7.21% error.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Three amino acid-balanced, vitamin-, and mineral-fortified peanut spreads were investigated for consumer acceptability and sensory profile. An all-peanut spread had the highest consumers' ratings on all of the “likings”, whereas peanut/soy spread with 40.5% fat (PSSA) had the lowest ratings on the overall liking, spreadability, flavor, and texture (〈 6, “like slightly”). Overall, consumers accepted all-peanut, peanut/non-fat dry milk spread (PSM) and peanut/soybean spread with 44.5% fat (PSSB), but not PSSA. Significant differences (α= 0.05) existed in the descriptive attributes including brown color; surface oiliness; spreadability; roasted peanutty, roasted soybean, milk, woody/hulls, and sweet flavors; stickiness; hardness, graininess; adhesiveness; cohesiveness; cohesiveness of mass; mouthcoating; mouthdryness; and adhesiveness to teeth. PSSA and all-peanut control were significantly different on most of the textural attributes. PSM exhibited no significant difference (α= 0.05) from all-peanut control.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A consumer test, descriptive analysis, and hexanal measurements were performed in cracker-coated peanuts (CCP) and roasted peanuts (RP) to determine the cut-off point for acceptability of stored CCP and RP. Regression analysis showed that roasted peanutty, oxidized and painty flavors and hexanal content were good predictors (R2≥ 0.70) of overall acceptance and flavor ratings. A hexanal content higher than 5.39 μg/g in CCP and 7.40 μg/g in RP, and/or an oxidized flavor intensity higher than 27.4 in CCP and 36.2 in RP is expected to have a product unacceptable to consumers (overall acceptance of 5 or lower). These values can likewise be used to determine the endpoint of shelf life of the products.
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