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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-9949
    Keywords: Key words:Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate arthritis – Hylan G-F 20 – Side-effects – Viscosupplementation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Little is known about the induction of acute calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate arthritis after the intra-articular injection of hylan G-F 20 (Synvisc). Two reports have documented this adverse effect after the intra-articular injection of hyaluronan. Our patient, a 60-year-old man with osteoarthritis in both knees, presented with a history of an arthroscopy with meniscus shaving 7 years previously. He was given an injection of hylan G-F 20 in the right knee joint. Two days after the second injection, pain and swelling of the knee occurred. There was a severe loss of physical function. Systemic inflammatory reactions such as fever were not observed. A microscopic investigation of the synovial fluid showed evidence of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals. Bacterial contamination was not detected. There was no indication for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in the history of the patient. Some days after receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and an intra-articular injection of steroids, the symptoms disappeared.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1588-2632
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Let X be a compact subset of the n-dimensional Euclidean space R n . A theorem of G. Björck implies the existence of a unique probability measure μ0 which maximizes the value ∫ X ∫ X d 2(x, y) dμ(x) dμ(y), where μ ranges over all probability measures on X and d 2 denotes the Euclidean distance on R n . In this paper we introduce and investigate an algorithm which is easy to describe and which inductively constructs a sequence ω = x 1, x 2,... in X such that ω is uniformly distributed with respect to μ0. Geometrical and topological interpretations and applications, and concrete numerical examples are given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Lasing mode switching between two longitudinal modes is observed in transverse single mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an extended cavity. Near- and far-field analyses carried out on devices with 2, 4, and 8 μm cavity spacers show an inherent relation between the transverse mode diameter and the calculated oxide- or thermally induced index guiding for the oscillating modes. Depending on the designed alignment of the optical longitudinal standing wave patterns relative to the oxide layer, mode switching can either be promoted or suppressed. Record-high single mode output powers up to 5.5 mW obtained from devices with 8 μm spacers and 8μm active diameter indicate the potential of the given device concept for low-divergence fundamental mode emission as required for many applications. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6776
    Keywords: aerobic biotransformations ; in situ 1H-NMR ; 1H-NMR in 1H2O
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A simple device for taking in situ proton NMR measurements in 1H2O is described. This allows aeration of reactions in a 10 mm diameter NMR tube without modifying the magnet or the probe head. With this device, aerobic biotransformations can be monitored in the NMR-tube placed in the spectrometer. It allows in situ analyses of the transformations, separating the aeration period temporally from the measurement time, not unlike traditional Warburg respiratory experiments. Two reactions determining kinetic and stoichieometric parameters: (i) a biotransformation by a growing Pseudomonas putida culture and (ii) l-phenylalanine oxidation catalysed by l-amino acid oxidase [E.C. 1.4.3.2]; both incubations were contained in the magnet.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The concerted photochemical ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene was investigated in the gas phase by low-intensity pumping at 267 nm and subsequent probing by high-intensity photoionization at 800 nm and mass-selective detection of the ion yields. We found five different time constants which can be assigned to traveling times along consecutive parts of the potential energy surfaces. The molecule is first accelerated in the spectroscopic state 1B along Franck–Condon active coordinates, then alters direction before changing over to the dark state 2A. All constants including that for leaving the 2A surface are below 100 fs. These times are shorter than appropriate vibrational periods. Such a maximum speed is evidence that the pathway is continuous leading from surface to surface via real crossings (conical intersections) and that the molecule is accelerated right into the outlet of the 2A/1A funnel. On the ground state it arrives as a compact wave packet, indicating a certain degree of coherence. The experimental method promises a high potential for investigating dynamics, since many consecutive phases of the process can be detected. This is because the fragmentation pattern depends on the location on the potential energy surface, so that monitoring several different ions permits to conclude on the population flow through these locations. Ionization at the intensities used is normally considered to be an effect of the electric field of the radiation. But in our case it is enhanced by resonances in the neutral molecule and in particular in the singly positive ion, and it is not sensitive for the length of the molecule (different conformers of the product hexatriene). The ionic resonances explain why hexatriene has a much richer fragmentation pattern than cyclohexadiene. Coulomb explosion is observed from an excited state of a doubly positive ion. Its mechanism is discussed. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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