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  • 1
    ISSN: 1279-8509
    Keywords: CLL MRD ; IgH genes rearrangement ; PCR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the absence of specific chromosomal translocations the best method for detecting minimal residual disease (MRD) in B cell malignancies is based on the uniqueness of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes rearrangement. We here report a very sensitive method for assessing MRD in complete hematological remission (CHR) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients as defined by the international workshop on CLL (IWCLL). Patients: Twelve CLL patients in CHR and complete phenotypic remission (CPR) were included in the study. Eight of them received Fludarabine (FDR), one was treated by Chop regimen, and the remaining 3 were rescued by polychemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). Methods: DNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of each patient was amplified with VH family specific and framework 3 primers in 5′ and a consensus JH primer in 3′, before treatment and sequentially after the CPR completion. When no clonal rearrangement could be detected by this assay, the CDR3 sequence specific probe of the clone was used as the 3′ primer, associated to the VH family specific primer in 5′. PCR products were analyzed by classical procedures in agarose and/or acrylamide gels. Results: Mixtures of leukemic cells and normal PBL showed detection of a single leukemic cell among more than 105 normal cells. Four out of the 12 patients achieved molecular remission (MR) when employing CDR3 amplifification. All 3 autografted patients were in MR, whereas only one out of the 9 patients treated by chemotherapy alone achieved MR. When using a clone specific probe, a clonal signal was observed in all cases but one (ABMT). Results presented here confirm that MR may be achieved in a few cases of B-CLL. Further studies are needed to determine the exact relationship between MRD and clinical outcome.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 54 (1998), S. 245-247 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3 have been identified as susceptibility genes for schizophrenia and altered protein and mRNA levels have been detected in the brains of schizophrenics post-mortem. Recently, we reported that haloperidol, clozapine and risperidone alter glycogen synthase kinase-3 and β-catenin protein expression and glycogen synthase kinase-3 phosphorylation levels in the rat prefrontal cortex and striatum. In the current study, β-catenin, adenomatous polyposis coli, Wnt1, dishevelled and glycogen synthase kinase-3 were examined in the ventral midbrain and hippocampus using western blotting. In addition, β-catenin and GSK-3 were examined in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area using confocal and fluorescence microscopy. The results indicate that repeated antipsychotic administration results in significant elevations in glycogen synthase kinase-3, β-catenin and dishevelled-3 protein levels in the ventral midbrain and hippocampus. Raclopride causes similar changes in β-catenin and GSK-3 in the ventral midbrain, suggesting that D2 dopamine receptor antagonism mediated the changes observed following antipsychotic administration. In contrast, amphetamine, a drug capable of inducing psychotic episodes, had the opposite effect on β-catenin and GSK-3 in the ventral midbrain. Collectively, the results suggest that antipsychotics may exert their beneficial effects through modifications to proteins that are associated with the canonical Wnt pathway.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We describe the clinical and imaging findings of brain stem tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The NF1 patients imaged between January 1984 and January 1996 were reviewed and 25 patients were identified with a brain stem tumour. Clinical, radiographical and pathological results were obtained by review of records and images. Brain stem tumour identification occurred much later than the clinical diagnosis of NF1. Medullary enlargement was most frequent (68 %), followed by pontine (52 %) and midbrain enlargement (44 %). Patients were further subdivided into those with diffuse (12 patients) and those with focal (13 patients) tumours. Treatment for hydrocephalus was required in 67 % of the first group and only 15 % of the second group. Surgery was performed in four patients and revealed fibrillary astrocytomas, one of which progressed to an anaplastic astrocytoma. In 40 % of patients both brain stem and optic pathway tumours were present. The biological behaviour of brain stem tumours in NF1 is unknown. Diffuse tumours in the patients with NF1 appear to have a much more favourable prognosis than patients with similar tumours without neurofibromatosis type 1.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ; Brain tumor ; pediatric ; Neuro-oncology ; Brain tumors ; prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We studied 14 young people with newly diagnosed hemisphere tumors, aged from 3 to 20 years (average 10 years). All underwent surgery following MR imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS). The tumors studied were three glioblastomas, one each of ganglio-glioblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), rhabdoid teratoid tumor, pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, and gliomatosis cerebri, and four gangliogliomas. Four patients died; ten patients are alive (five with stable residual tumor, five with no evident tumor). Images and spectra were acquired on a 1.5-T imager. Proton MRS was performed before gadolinium injection in all but one case. Single-voxel techniques were utilized in all cases, using a spin-echo or STEAM sequence with a long echo time (135 or 270 ms). Peak areas of N -acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr) were assessed. The NAA/Cho peak-area ratio was very low in the patients who died (mean ± s. d. 0.20 ± 0.14), and higher in the patients who are alive (0.74 ± 0.47; P = 0.007 by two-tailed t -test). The Cr/Cho peak-area ratio also followed a similar trend for the two groups (mean ± s. d. 0.17 ± 0.07 and 0.49 ± 0.30, respectively; P = 0.01 by two-tailed t -test).
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