Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cochlea ; Perfusion ; Elevated potassium ; Electrical potentials ; Recovery
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Scala tympani (ST) in guinea pig was perfused with modified Ringer's solutions containing 5–50 mM potassium; tone-induced cochlear responses from the basal turn of ST were compared before, during and after perfusions. The compound nerve action potential (N1) and afterpotential (a/p) amplitudes were reduced, especially above 20 mM; the summating potential (SP) was variable, but its onset shape changed consistently with 13–20 mM levels. However, the cochlear microphonic amplitude (CM) remained substantially unchanged even at the 35 mM level. K+ concentration was monitored in ST with ion-sensitive pipettes. Stable levels were reached within 2 min, but N1 responses continued to fall beyond this time. Recovery to normal K+ levels took place spontaneously and the concentration curve which resulted showed a 2-slope characteristic. These experiments question whether elevated potassium concentration in scala tympani depolarizes the hair cells, and if it does, whether the hair cell resting potential is involved in the generation of the CM.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: GABA ; Iontophoresis ; Somatotopy ; SR95531 ; Ventrobasal thalamus ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have recently described extensive inhibitory interactions between inputs to the ventroposterolateral (VPL) (Roberts and Wells 1990, 1991) and ventropos-teromedial (VPM) (Salt 1989) portions of the ventrobasal nucleus of the thalamus (VB). We wished to determine whether (i) the inhibition observed in the VPL was operating at the thalamic level, (ii) was dependant on GABA receptors, (iii) was demonstrable on neurons of the ventro-posteromedial nucleus of the thalamus (VPM) and (iv) was operant on test responses evoked by natural stimuli. Conditioning stimulation of sciatic nerve afferents caused inhibition of air jet evoked test responses of single VB neurons in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Both VPM and VPL neurons were subject to inhibition by conditioning stimulation of hindlimb afferents, indicating the widespread nature of the inhibitory process. This inhibition was reduced by the iontophoretic application of SR95531, a GABAA receptor antagonist. We conclude that there is a widely distributed inhibitory system operating in the somatic thalamus which involves both the medial and lateral portions of the nucleus and is, at least in part, mediated by GABAA receptors. The possible involvement of inhibitory processes and intrinsic membrane properties of thalamic neurones in the somatotopic plasticity of the sensory thalamus following deafferentation and in deaf-ferentation pain is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Plasticity ; Glutamate ; AP5 ; Visual Deprivation ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated activity is considered important for experience-dependent plasticity in the developing visual system. We investigated the influence of age and experience on the role of NMDA receptors in the visual transmission in the superficial grey layer of the superior colliculus (SGS) of the superior colliculus, where, in the adult, NMDA receptors mediate a substantial part of the visual response. In normally reared (postnatal day 14, P14, to adult) rats, visual responses were challenged with NMDA receptor-selective iontophoretic applications of the antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5). After eye opening (at P14), there was a significant increase in the number of neurones whose visual responses were reduced during AP5 ejection, which peaked at P22 (85%; n = 21), and then declined to adult levels (66%; n = 47) at P25. The mean reduction of the response (from control levels) by AP5 was similar at all ages (approximately 40%). Dark rearing had striking effects on the role of NMDA receptors in visual transmission, especially when comparisons were made between age-matched subjects greater than P25. In these subjects, AP5 ejection reduced the visual responses of all neurones studied. In addition, AP5 ejection caused a significantly larger reduction of visual responses in dark-reared rats (mean reduction 62 ± 4; n = 29) compared with age-matched controls (mean reduction 44 ± 8; n = 23). The D,L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) reduced the visual responses of every neurone studied and there were no age- or experience-dependent effects. We conclude that NMDA receptors, but not AMPA receptors, assume greater importance for visual transmission in the SGS of dark-reared rats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Metabotropic glutamate receptors ; 2R ; 4R-4-Aminopyrrolidine-2 ; 4-dicarboxylate ; Somatosensory thalamus ; Presynaptic inhibition ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Recordings were made from single neurones responsive to somatosensory input in the ventrobasal thalamus of the anaesthetised rat. GABAergic afferent inhibition arising from the thalamic reticular nucleus was evoked using a condition-test vibrissal stimulation paradigm. Local iontophoretic application of the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist 2R,4R-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC) in the vicinity of the recorded neurones produced a reduction of the afferent inhibition (from 78±3.0% to 25±5.3%), presumably via a presynaptic mechanism. This effect could be antagonised by LY307452, a known group II mGluR antagonist. In contrast, two selective group I mGluR agonists, (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) and trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (tADA), were without effect on the GABAergic inhibition. These data show that group II but not group I mGluRs can have a significant role in the modulation of GABAergic afferent inhibition in the ventrobasal thalamus. This could be of importance in the control of sensory discriminative processes and functions of sleep, arousal and seizure generation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The antigenic profiles of serotype O strains of FMDV collected from the oropharynx of persistently infected cattle were defined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb's) in an indirect antigen-trapping ELISA. The mAb profiling showed no significant loss of reactivity in two neutralising antigenic sites of persistent FMDV isolates collected over a period of eight months. Early and late serum taken from a carrier animal showed similar neutralising activity against early and late carrier isolates. The antigenic stability of serotype O strains of FMDV collected during the carrier state suggests that antigenic variation facilitated by pressure from the host humoral immune response is not critical to the establishment or maintenance of a persistent infection with FMDV.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary.  The baculovirus expression system was found to be efficient at expressing the 3D, the 3AB and the 3ABC non-structural proteins (NSP) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as antigens recognised by immune sera in ELISA. ELISA’s using 3D, 3AB and 3ABC detected antibodies from day 8 and 10 after experimental infection of susceptible cattle and sheep and cattle remained seropositive for more than 395 days. The ELISA’s detected antibodies against any of the seven serotypes of FMDV. The 3D ELISA was specific and precise and as sensitive as established ELISA’s which measure antibody to structural proteins. The assay may be used as a resource saving alternative to established ELISA’s for the detection of antibodies against any of the seven serotypes. The 3AB and the 3ABC ELISA were also specific and precise. FMDV infected cattle could be differentiated from those that had been merely vaccinated as they gave a positive result in both the 3AB and the 3ABC ELISA’s. Two cattle that had been both vaccinated and infected also gave positive results in both tests, suggesting that the 3AB and 3ABC ELISA’s, but not the 3D ELISA might represent a reliable means of detecting infection in a vaccinated population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Brassica juncea ; Screening ; Mutants ; Cadmium ; Lead
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A new screening method for non-destructive, high-sensitivity, high-throughput isolation of plant mutants capable of accumulating large amounts of heavy metals has been developed. This method is based on incubating seedlings in a solution containing radioisotopes of the metals of interest and visualizing the tissue accumulation of these metals with a phosphorimager. We used this technique to isolate mutants of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern with increased accumulation of Cd and Pb for use in phytoremediation, an emerging technology using plants to remediate polluted soil and water. Approximately 50,000 M2 seedlings were screened and 21 mutants were recovered that retained increased accumulation through the third generation. Mutant 7/15–1 is characterized by enhanced Pb accumulation per unit of root fresh weight, stunted root growth, and decreased root cell size. Data indicate that roots of 7/15–1 contain more cell-wall material on a fresh-weight basis than roots of the wild-type, which may at least partially explain its ability to accumulate more Pb.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Anaesthesia 47 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2044
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The contribution of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors to visual synaptic transmission in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus of the cat has been studied using extracellular recording and iontophoretic techniques. Neuronal responses to natural visual stimulation and the ejection of NMDA and AMPA were observed in the absence and presence of the antagonists CNQX, CPP and AP5. CNQX routinely reduced the responses to visual stimulation at ejection currents which selectively blocked the responses to AMPA but not those to NMDA. Agonist selective ejection currents of CPP and AP5 also reduced visual responses of most SC neurons, but there was a substantial majority whose visual responses were resistant to these antagonists. Neurons with CPP/AP5 resistant visual responses were more commonly found 750–1000 μm from the dorsal surface of the SC. The data indicate that, while non-NMDA receptors are heavily involved in visual synaptic transmission in the superficial SC, the involvement of NMDA receptors varies with recording depth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The existence of the so-called metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptor has been known for some years. Various functions have been suggested for this receptor, but the lack of selective antagonists for (IS, 3R)-aminocyclopentane dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) has precluded the direct demonstration of a functional role for this receptor in synaptic processes. We describe here a specific antagonism of the excitatory responses of thalamic neurons to ACPD by two novel antagonists, and a parallel antagonism by these compounds of sensory synaptic responses to noxious stimuli of the same neurons. This provides the first direct pharmacological evidence for a functional role of ACPD-sensitive receptors in central neurotransmission, and indicates that these receptors may play an important part in central sensory processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...