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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Pars cerebellaris loci coerulei ; Man ; Neuronal loss ; Aging ; Biomathematical analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pars cerebellaris loci coerulei is a flat accumulation of perikarya representing a subnucleus of the locus coeruleus in the roof of the fourth ventricle of the brain in man. A quantitative study was done on this subnucleus; it comprised 67 specimens from individuals between 11 and 90 years. Nerve cell counts were performed on cleared mounted block preparations. Mathematical analysis of the data was performed using logistic growth functions. The results showed that with advancing age there is a loss of neurons in both sexes. This begins in the female approximately after age 40; in the male already at age 20 (reaching a lower value in old age). The final loss of neurons is more pronounced in the male than in the female. Male and female specimens did not differ in the total number of neurons. In both sexes the left side of the pars cerebellaris loci coerulei contained more neurons than the right.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 166 (1983), S. 333-353 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cytoarchitectonics ; Albino mouse ; Iso-and allocortex ; Cortical mapping ; Automatic measuring method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cerebral cortex of the albino mouse was examined by means of a quantitative method. An image analyzer was used in conjunction with an automatic scanning procedure to determine the grey level index in Nissl-stained sections. Computer plots of various ranges of grey level indices enabled delineation of cortical areas, from which cortical maps were graphically reconstructed. The cortical areal pattern is, in some regions, similar to the commonly used map of Caviness (1975) but differes considerably in other regions, especially in the temporal one. Furthermore, the primary visual cortex of the mouse was shown to be composed of two distinct cytoarchitectonic areas. The results of the study are discussed with respect to the literature on anatomical and functional localizations in the mouse cerebral cortex.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Glutamate receptors ; Rostro-caudal gradient ; Receptor autoradiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The distribution of glutamate receptors in transverse hippocampal sections has been well investigated. However, in spite of the known septotemporal gradients of hippocampal connectivity no systematic studies exist about the distribution of glutamate receptors along the septotemporal (longitudinal) hippocampal axis. Therefore, in the present study this issue was investigated using receptor autoradiography for the [3H]MK-801, [3H]AMPA and [3H]Kainate binding sites. Hippocampi from 30-day-old rats were sectioned perpendicularly to their longitudinal axis, yielding a total of 25–30 equidistantly spaced autoradiographs for each hippocampus. For each section layer-specific concentrations of binding sites were calculated by the aid of a computerized image analysing system. The dependency of concentrations of binding sites on the septotemporal position was evaluated by regression analysis. Gradients of binding were confined to distinct hippocampal layers. Significant septotemporal gradients of [3H]MK-801 binding were observed in selected layers of CA1 and the dentate gyrus, a septal to temporal decrease of binding in the oriens and radiatum layers of CA1 being most prominent. For [3H]AMPA, significant septotemporal gradients of binding were restricted to layers of CA3, CA4 and the dentate gyrus, with values generally increasing from septal to temporal levels. The observed septotemporal gradients possibly reflect functional segregations along the longitudinal hippocampal axis and could be important for the comparability of ligand binding studies using transverse hippocampal sections or hippocampal slice cultures.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Nuclei habenulae ; Biomathematical Analysis ; Fresh Volume ; Rat ; Spontaneous Nerve Cell Degeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The growth of the nuclei habenulae medialis et lateralis of albino rats is described by monotonically increasing growth curves of fresh volumes during ontogenesis. The nucleus habenulae medialis matures earlier than the nucleus habenulae lateralis in the perinatal period. However, the two nuclei reach their final volume at about the same time. Simultaneous electron microscopic investigation reveals the phenomenon of spontaneous nerve cell degeneration within the nuclei habenulae during ontogenesis in spite of the non-overshooting growth curves for the habenular nuclei.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 162 (1981), S. 81-103 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cytoarchitectonics ; Guinea pig ; Iso- and Allocortex ; Cortical mapping ; Automatic measuring method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cerebral cortex of the guinea pig has been examined by means of a quantitative cytoarchitectonic method (Schleicher et al. 1978; Zilles et al. 1978a). In this method, a computer-controlled automatic image analyzer determines the grey level index of microscopic fields measuring 50x50 μm in Nissl-stained sections by a systematic scanning procedure. Computer plots of serially sectioned histological slides from three hemispheres were produced by printing selected ranges of grey level indices. The delineation of cortical areas was worked out in these plots based on quantitative criteria. Cortical maps of the areal pattern were reconstructed graphically. The resulting cortical map of the guinea pig differes from that of Rose (1912), but it corresponds to the results of Friede (1960) and is in agreement with neurophysiological studies. In general, the areal pattern of the guinea pig is similar to that of the rat (Zilles et al. 1980), but there are also some differences. These differences are discussed with respect to functional considerations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Neuropeptides ; Limbic cortex ; Allocortex ; Mesocortex ; Parcellation ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The expression of somatostatin mRNA within the allocortex of the rat was examined by in situ hybridization with an alkaline phosphatase labeled probe. We sought to determine whether parcellation of the allocortex could be based upon the number and laminar location of the hybridized cells and to contrast the allocortical features with those of the isocortical areas. The cingulate region was characterized by intense, moderate, and faint cells, small to medium in size throughout the laminae. The retrosplenial region demonstrated a somewhat stratified appearance with an abundance of cells expressing somatostatin mRNA in the upper portion of the composite layer II–IV and also in the upper portion of layer VI. The insular region displayed more heterogeneity. The distribution of the cells hybridized for somatostatin mRNA formed distinctive configurations within the insular region (dorsal and ventral agranular insular areas) with no obvious generality. The perirhinal area resembled the ventral agranular insular area, and the cell distribution of the entorhinal and prepiriform areas displayed a common characteristic in that the primary axis of the perikarya of somatostatin mRNA expressing cells within the lower layers were oriented at almost every possible angle. The conclusion of the investigation is that in situ hybridization for somatostatin mRNA provides a means by which the areal boundaries within the allocortex may be drawn.
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