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  • 1995-1999  (10)
  • 1970-1974  (1)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biology and philosophy 11 (1996), S. 569-575 
    ISSN: 1572-8404
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Philosophy
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Optical and quantum electronics 29 (1997), S. 531-531 
    ISSN: 1572-817X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Nephrology 3 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary: Although a genetic predisposition to IgA nephropathy can be documented in a minority of patients, the majority of cases are sporadic. The frequent association with mucosal infections suggest the aetiologic involvement of microbial antigens. However, no particular bacterial or viral strain has clearly been implicated. The involvement of mesangial or endothelial autoantigens has been suggested but not proven in a majority of cases. Most patients have a significantly higher memory repertoire of IgA forming B-lymphocytes in their bone marrow associated with high plasma levels of IgA1 while the mucosally stimulated IgA response against recall antigens is augmented, the mucosal and plasma IgA response after mucosal stimulation by neoantigen is significantly reduced or absent. These observations suggest that IgA nephropathy patients have a defect in raising a mucosal IgA response against novel microbial antigens and that they will suffer from recurrent mucosal infections until they have developed a large enough repertoire of memory B-cells to protect their mucosal surfaces. As a consequence of the recurrent stimulation of the IgA immune system, high levels of plasma IgA are found. The mechanism of IgA deposit formation in the mesangium is unknown. The ensuing inflammatory reaction in the glomeruli may vary from mild to severe, but usually the disease has an indolent course. The progression of IgA nephropathy to renal failure is clinically the most important complication. Recent observations on the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of interstitial infiltration, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy have created the opportunity to study and manipulate the process of renal scarring and the progression to renal failure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Nephrology 3 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1797
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary: IgA nephropathy is a clinically and histologically defined syndrome of unknown aetiology, which may have various causes in different parts of the world. Immunologically it is characterized by deposition of IgA1, probably polymeric IgA, in the mesangium and is frequently associated with IgG, C3 and components of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade. the disease can go into complete remission in children, but in adults it usually has a progressive course, characterized by the appearance of proteinuria and hypertension and loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Histologically the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial changes correlate with a clinical progressive course. the mucosal immune system is characterized by high plasma IgAl antibody responses after parenteral immunization with viral or bacterial vaccines. However, following nasal challenge with a bacterial neoantigen, IgA nephropathy patients appear to have a defective mucosal immune response in their nasal washes, in their bone marrow and in their plasma IgA1 antibody levels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: BACKGROUND: The combination of omeprazole with amoxycillin or clarithromycin is used as treatment against Helicobacter pylori. It seems likely that the antibacterial activity of the antibiotic may be improved by increasing gastric pH towards neutrality, and a twice daily regimen of omeprazole is probably needed. AIM: To assess the effects of twice daily administration of omeprazole 20 and 40 mg. METHODS: Twelve duodenal ulcer patients in remission were randomized to receive in single-blind fashion either placebo, omeprazole 20 mg or omeprazole 40 mg twice daily (08.00 and 20.00 h). On the sixth day of dosing they underwent 24-h gastric pH-metry. RESULTS: Omeprazole 20 and 40 mg b.d. produced marked decreases (P 〈 0.001) of 24-h gastric acidity (pH 5.4 +/- 0.9 and pH 5.7 +/- 0.6, respectively, vs. a basal pH of 1.4 +/- 0.2) and kept gastric pH at levels higher than 3.0 for almost 24 h. Gastric pH was kept above 5.0 for about 18 h and above 6.0 for about 10 h, while the time spent above 7.0 did not exceed 3 h. There were no significant differences between the two omeprazole dosages at any pH threshold. CONCLUSION: Omeprazole 20 mg b.d. is sufficient to render the gastric milieu as anacidic as possible in duodenal patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: BACKGROUND: Ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) is a new chemical entity for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. RESULTS: RBC is freely soluble in water (more than 600 mg/mL at pH 4.6), whereas an equimolar admixture of its component molecules, bismuth citrate and ranitidine, formed an almost totally insoluble suspension. Even at very low pH values (around 2.0), the solubility of bismuth in ranitidine bismuth citrate was at least two-fold better than in the admixture. Comparison of several physico-chemical characteristics indicated that RBC possessed significantly different melting point properties, X-ray powder diffraction patterns, infra-red spectra and 13C-NMR solid-state spectra to the admixture. Ranitidine bismuth citrate inhibited human pepsin isoenzymes 1, 2, 3 and 5 but the admixture was inactive. RBC showed approximately two-fold greater anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro than the admixture (geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations of 12.5 and 25.7 mg/L, respectively) and was more rapidly bactericidal. In a mouse model of gastric H. pylori colonization, 200 mg/kg of bismuth, given as RBC, eradicated the organism from all mice while only 10% of infections were eradicated by equivalent levels of bismuth in admixture form. CONCLUSION: It is believed that the significantly greater solubility of RBC, especially at lower pH values, is highly relevant to its better antipepsin and anti-H. pylori action compared to the insoluble admixture of bismuth citrate and ranitidine.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1468-2982
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies have reported the existence of an arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of a Ca2+, NADPH-dependent nitric oxide synthase enzyme (NOS) in the generation of NO in human platelets. In the present research, we determined the rate of production of NO and cGMP in the cytosol of platelets stimulated by collagen in 20 females with menstrual migraine (MM), (age range 2440 years), assessed in the follicular and luteal phases, interictally and ictally in the latter period. The same patients were also assessed at mid-cycle. At the same time, the variations in the collagen response of platelets were evaluated. Moreover, these parameters were determined in the same periods in 20 age-matched control females and in 20 females affected by non-menstrually related migraine (nMM). The collagen-stimulated production of NO in the cytosol of the platelet cytosol was significantly higher in migraine patients with MM than in the control subjects. In MM patients, the increase was greater in the luteal phase of the cycle than during the follicular phase (p〈0.005). A rise in NO production in platelets was also present, although to a lesser extent, in females affected by nMM compared to the healthy females, but this rise was most evident at ovulation (p〈0.001). A slight but significant increase was also observed at mid-cycle in control women, but this increase did not reach the values determined in the migraine groups (p〈0.02). NO production in platelets stimulated by collagen was significantly increased during attacks with respect to the interictal period in both patient groups. Similar variations were observed in the production of cGMP in MM and nMM patients. The increase in NO production was accompanied by a decrease in platelet aggregation in the migraine groups compared with the control group; this decrease was most evident at mid-cycle in nMM patients and in the luteal phase in MM patients. These data suggest an activation of the L-arginine/ NO pathway in MM and nMM patients which could explain the modifications in the platelet response to collagen evidenced in migraine-free periods and during attacks. The activation of this pathway is more accentuated in the luteal phase in MM patients, and this could be the cause of the increased susceptibility to migraine attacks in premenstrual and menstrual periods in these patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Allergen challenge in allergic rhinitis patients leads to local eosinophilia and Th2-type cytokine expression. Natural exposure to grass pollen is additionally characterized by epithelial mast-cell infiltration. We hypothesized that perennial allergic rhinitis is also associated with T-cell and eosinophil infiltration of the nasal mucosa, local Th2-type cytokine expression, and increased numbers of nasal epithelial mast cells. Methods: Nasal biopsies from perennial allergic rhinitis patients and controls were analysed by immunocytochemistry for different cell populations and in situ hybridization for cytokine mRNA-expressing cells. Results: Perennial allergic rhinitis was associated with increased numbers of submucosal CD3+ T cells (P=0.05), EG2+ activated eosinophils (P=0.01), and CD68+ macrophages (P=0.01) compared to controls. Epithelial, but not submucosal, tryptase-positive mast cells were also elevated in rhinitics compared to controls (P=0.01). The numbers of cells expressing interleukin (IL)-5 were higher (P=0.01) and the numbers of cells expressing IL-2 were lower (P=0.04) in rhinitic patients than controls. There were no significant differences for either IL-4 or interferon-gamma between the groups. Conclusions: Perennial allergic rhinitis is characterized by mast-cell migration into the epithelium; submucosal infiltration by T cells, eosinophils, and macrophages; and an imbalance in local T-cell cytokine production in favour of enhanced IL-5 and reduced IL-2 expression.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Carvacrol, citral and geraniol showed potent antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and its rifampicin-resistant (RifR) strain as determined in txyptic soy broth and by zone of inhibition on agar-based medium. Carvacrol had the most potent bactericidal activity, with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of 250 μg/mL for both tester strains. When tested at 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0% in 1% Tween 20 for bactericidal activity against RifR-S. typhimurium inoculated on fish cubes, carvacrol at 3.0% completely killed the inoculated bacteria, while geraniol killed most of the bacteria, and citral killed the least. Carvacrol and geranial showed potent antibacterial activity at 1.5%. Bactericidal activity became more evident as storage of fish cubes at 4°C lengthened. The comparable inhibition of these strains of Salmonella and species of Gram-negative bacteria by carvacrol and geraniol support their application as potential antibacterial agents in food systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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