Key words: Atherectomy—Intravascular ultrasound—Arteriosclerosis—Arteries, extremities—Femoral artery
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the role of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) before and after directional atherectomy (DA) in the treatment of femoropopliteal artery stenosis. Methods: In 12 patients with 16 stenoses IVUS was performed before and immediately after an angiographically successful DA. This was defined as a diameter reduction (DR) ≤ 50%, which was calculated using the minimal lumen diameter compared with the diameter of a nearby ``normal'' segment. In the presence of residual plaque on IVUS an additional DA was performed. Endpoints studied were DR ≤ 30% on IVUS compared with the IVUS findings of the angiographically normal reference segment, or when no additional atherosclerotic material could be removed by further DA passages. Results: Additional DA (mean 1.6 per lesion) had to be performed in all patients. Initial DA increased the cross-sectional free lumen area (FLA) from 3.8 ± 2.0 mm2 to 8.1 ± 2.7 mm2 (p= 0.0004). Additional DA increased FLA to 9.3 ± 2.3 mm2 (p= 0.002) after the second passage and to 9.8 ± 2.4 mm2 (p= 0.09) after the final DA run. The plaque area (PLA) before DA decreased from 18.1 ± 4.2 mm2 to 15.4 ± 4.8 mm2 (p= 0.002) after the first passage, and to 13.5 ± 5.0 mm2 (p= 0.004) and 12.8 ± 4.4 mm2 (p= 0.07) after the second and final DA runs, respectively. PLA of the reference segment (9.5 ± 5.7 mm2) was significantly smaller (p= 0.006) than the final PLA of the treated lesion, indicating a large amount of retained plaque. As a result of DA there was an increase in the area bordered by the medial layer, i.e., the total vessel area (from 21.9 ± 4.7 mm2 to 23.0 ± 4.7 mm2), significantly in eccentric and soft lesions. On IVUS, dissection and plaque rupture after the final passage was seen in 12 of 16 stenoses; two dissections were seen on the completion angiogram. After the final passage in all stenoses except three, the DR with IVUS was ≤ 30%. Conclusion: Lumen enlargement following DA is predominantly due to plaque excision. Vessel expansion combined with plaque excision varies in different stenoses and is an important factor in eccentric and soft lesions. Despite additional DA considerable plaque remains.
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