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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Phenylketonuria ; Maternal phenylketonuria ; Phenylalanine ; Pregnancy outcome ; Phenylalanine restricted diet
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The German maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU) Study began in 1989 and since 1992 works together with the American-Canadian MPKU Study. Main goals of the study are: (1) to find women with phenylketonuria (PKU) and mild untreated hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA); (2) to inform them about the risks of an untreated pregnancy with PKU and HPA; (3) to evaluate the efficacy of the phenylalanine (Phe) restricted dietary treatment prior to and during pregnancy by following the physical and cognitive development of offspring from treated pregnancies. An interim report of the study is presented. Until now, 43 pregnancies have been followed. They resulted in 34 live births, 24 from women with PKU and 10 from women with HPA. There are significant negative correlations between the gestational age in which the dietary control (blood Phe level 〈 360 μmol/l) was reached and pregnancy outcome as measured by growth parameters and early cognitive and motor developmental quotients at the age of 2 years. For minimizing risks of MPKU, preconceptional dietary control is strongly recommended. Tracking and timely information of young women about risks of MPKU is of outmost importance.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Nervenarzt 69 (1998), S. 639-646 
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter S100B ; Demenz ; Trisomie 21 ; Multiple Sklerose ; Key words S100B ; Dementia ; Down syndrome ; Multiple sclerosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary S100B is a multifunctional member of the S100-calmodulin-troponin superfamily of proteins and can modulate the activity of other intracellular proteins following binding of calcium. S100B has been shown to exhibit regulatory effects on cell growth and differentiation as well as on cell shape and energy metabolism. S100B has neurotrophic properties and stimulates glial cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of S100B has been proposed as a pathogenetic factor in plaque formation in patients with Alzheimerís disease and Down syndrome. Furthermore, S100B-specific T-lymphocytes have been shown to be encephalitogenic in the animal model of experimental autoimmune panencephalitis (EAP). Phenotypically and functionally similar S100B-specific T-cells can also be recovered from the peripheral blood of humans making S100B a potential candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis. Here the basic biochemical, molecular and functional properties of S100B are reviewed with special regard to the potential pathogenetic role of S100B in Alzheimerís disease, Down syndrome and multiple sclerosis.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung S100B ist ein Mitglied der S100-Calmodulin-Troponin-Superfamilie, das nach Bindung von Kalzium in der Lage ist, mit anderen intrazellulären Proteinen zu interagieren. S100B übt auf diese Weise eine Vielzahl regulativer Funktionen bei intrazellulären Wachstums-, Differenzierungs- und Stoffwechselvorgängen aus. S100B hat neurotrophe Eigenschaften auf neuronale und astrozytäre Zellpopulationen in vitro und in vivo und ist möglicherweise an der Pathogenese der Plaqueentstehung und reaktiven Astrogliose bei der Alzheimerschen Erkrankung und Trisomie 21 beteiligt. Tierexperimentell konnte gezeigt werden, daß S100B-spezifische T-Lymphozyten enzephalitogen sind (experimentelle autoimmune Panenzephalitis, EAP). Phänotypisch und funktionell ähnliche S100B-spezifische T-Zellen lassen sich auch beim Menschen nachweisen. In Analogie zum EAP-Modell kann S100B daher als mögliches Autoantigen bei multipler Sklerose angesehen werden. In der folgenden Übersicht werden die wichtigsten biochemischen, molekularen und funktionellen Eigenschaften von S100B dargestellt. Ein besonderes Augenmerk gilt der möglichen pathogenetischen Rolle von S100B bei der Alzheimer Demenz, der Trisomie 21 sowie der Multiplen Sklerose.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Chirurg 69 (1998), S. 985-988 
    ISSN: 1433-0385
    Keywords: Key words: Post-traumatic pyogenic liver abscess ; Diagnosis ; Surgical therapy. ; Schlüsselwörter: Posttraumatischer ; pyogener Leberabsceß ; Diagnostik ; chirurgische Therapie.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung. Der posttraumatische pyogene Leberabsceß ist ein seltenes Krankheitsbild. Wir stellen den Fall eines 38 jährigen Patienten vor, der sich 3 Monate nach einem stumpfen Bauchtrauma mit einem ausgedehnten, multiloculären Leberabsceß und rechtsseitigem Pleuraempyem in unserer Klinik vorstellte. Die definitive Therapie bestand aus einer Hemihepatektomie rechts und Pleuradrainage. Symptomatik, Diagnose und die verschiedenen therapeutischen Möglichkeiten werden anhand dieses Fallberichts erörtert.
    Notes: Summary. Post-traumatic pyogenic liver abscess is a rare disease. We present the case of a 38-year-old man with multilocular liver abscess and pleural empyema following blunt abdominal trauma. The patient had a prodrome lasting 3 months before presenting in our department. The therapy included partial hepatectomy and pleural drainage. Clinical signs, diagnosis and possible therapy are discussed in this case report.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Cytokine ; Islet of Langerhans ; Insulin secretion ; Nitrite ; Heat shock proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of beta cell activity on cytokineinduced functional and structural impairments as well as the ability of those damaged cells to recover were investigated. Rat islets cultured for 4 days in the presence of 5, 10, and 30 mmol/l glucose were exposed to interferon-γ (IFN, 500 U/ml) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF, 250 U/ml) for the last 24 h. After cytokine removal islets were allowed to recover spontaneously in culture medium containing 10 mmol/l glucose for a further 7 days. Cytokines significantly inhibited insulin release into culture medium, insulin storage, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, protein, and DNA synthesis. In the presence of cytokines there was a six- to eightfold increase in nitrite production by the islets. The functional impairments were more pronounced in metabolically stimulated beta cells. In addition, cytokines caused membrane alterations as indicated by increased spontaneous chromium-51 release. The cytokines specifically induced the synthesis of two proteins (72 and 88 kDa, respectively). By immunoblotting, the 72-kDa protein was identified as heat shock protein. After a 1-week recovery period, insulin storage and stimulated insulin secretion of cytokine-treated islets were still significantly diminished. However, protein and DNA synthesis of cytokine-exposed islets returned to pre-exposure levels. In conclusion, high beta cell activity increases islet susceptibility to TNF+IFN. Cytokine-induced, longlasting, inhibitory effects are primarily directed to betacell-specific functions, while general vital cell functions clearly recover after cytokine removal. The induction of certain proteins and the increased protein synthesis and replication rate after cytokine removal might reflect activated repair processes.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 147 (1999), S. 1025-1029 
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Im letzten Jahr ist mit den Leukotrienrezeptorantagonisten eine neue Gruppe von Asthmamedikamenten auf den Markt gekommen, dies wirft Fragen nach ihrem konkreten Einsatz, ihren Vorteilen gegenüber den etablierten Therapien, aber auch ihren möglichen Risiken auf. Das Churg-Strauss-Syndrom (CSS), eine primäre systemische Vaskulitis, ist in der Praxis ein eher unbekanntes Syndrom, das allerdings im Zusammenhang mit den Leukotrienantagonisten in die Schlagzeilen gekommen ist. Die vorliegende Zusammenstellung gliedert sich in drei Teile und gibt einen Überblick über bekannte Nebenwirkungen und mögliche Risiken der Leukotrientherapie, stellt das Churg-Strauss-Syndrom vorund stellt die bisherigen Erkenntnisse über einem möglichen Zusammenhang zwischen CSS und Leukotrienantagonisten dar.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A Saccharomyces-cerevisiae-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of lignocellulosic biomass is limited to an operating temperature of about 37 °C, and even a small increase in temperature can have a deleterious effect. This points to a need for a more thermotolerant yeast. To this end, S. cerevisiae D5A and a thermotolerant yeast, Candida acidothermophilum, were tested at 37 °C, 40 °C, and 42 °C using dilute-acid-pretreated poplar as substrate. At 40 °C, C. acidothermophilum produced 80% of the theoretical ethanol yield, which was higher than the yield from S.cerevisiae D5A at either 37 °C or 40 °C. At 42 °C, C. acidothermophilum showed a slight drop in performance. On the basis of preliminary estimates, SSF with C. acidothermophilum at 40 °C can reduce cellulase costs by about 16%. Proportionately greater savings can be realized at higher temperatures if such a high-temperature SSF is feasible. This demonstrates the advantage of using thermophilic or thermotolerant yeasts.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Alpine nitrogen cycle ; Amino acids ; Kobresia myosuroides ; Organic nitrogen ; Plant-microbe competition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  Microbes are assumed to possess strong competitive advantages over plants for uptake of nutrients from the soil. The finding that non-mycorrhizal plants can obtain a significant fraction of their N requirement from soil amino acids contradicts this assumption. The amino acid glycine (Gly) has been used as a model amino acid in many recent studies. Our preliminary studies showed that Gly was a poor substrate for microbial growth compared to other amino acids. We tested the hypothesis that the alpine sedge Kobresia myosuroides competes better for Gly than for other amino acids because of decreased microbial demand for this compound. Soil microbial populations that could grow using Gly as a sole carbon source were about 5 times lower than those that could grow on glutamate (Glu). Gly supported a significantly lower population than any of the ten other amino acids tested except serine. In contrast, K. myosuroides took up Gly from hydroponic solution at faster rates than Glu. In plant-soil microcosms, plants competed with soil microbes 3.25 times better for Gly than for Glu. We conclude that the low microbial demand and the rapid plant uptake of Gly relative to other amino acids allow Gly to be an especially important nitrogen source for K. myosuroides.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 25.40
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Excitation functions and forward-backward anisotropies have been measured for the7Li(p, γ)8Be capture reaction over the proton energy rangeE p =100 to 1500 keV, using a 4π summing crystal and Ge(Li) detectors, respectively. The data show at all energies the presence of El and M1 capture amplitudes arising from the direct capture (DC) process and theE R =441 and 1030 keV resonances, respectively. Due to the observed DC process, the present data increase significantly the reaction rates (up to a factor of 110) compared to values given in the compilation. The data and their analyses remove the recent criticism on DC model calculations, which had implied a significant reduction in the extrapolated S(E) factor for7Be(p,γ)B and thus in the predicted flux of high-energy solar neutrinos; thus, the solar neutrino problem is still with us.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 81.40
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Nuclear resonant reaction analysis techniques for hydrogen depth profiling in solid materials typically have used15N ion beams at 6.40 MeV and19F ion beams at 6.42 MeV, which require a tandem accelerator. We report a new technique using an18O ion beam at a resonance energy of 2.70 MeV, which requires only a single stage accelerator. Improved values of the nuclear parameters for the 2.70 MeV (18O) and 6.40 MeV (15N) resonances are reported. The beam energy spread was investigated for different ions and ion charge states and found to scale with the charge state. Data obtained using atomic and molecular gas targets reveal the research potential of Doppler spectroscopy. Examples of hydrogen depth profiling in solid materials using15N and18O ion beams are presented.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We solve the Dyson equation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a nonlocal effective quark interaction kernel which is instantaneous and separable. The momentum-dependent dynamical quark mass, the scalar and pseudoscalar meson masses, the pion decay constant and the quark meson coupling constant are calculated at finite temperature in the Hartree approximation for the quark self energy. We obtain relations between these quantities, which coincide to leading order in the current quark mass (m 0/Δm) with the basic low energy theorems: the Goldstone theorem, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation and the Goldberger-Treimann relation at finite temperature. A formula for the σ−π mass gap is obtained which exhibits an additional contribution from the momentum dependence of the quark mass.
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