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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (6)
  • 1995-1999  (6)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Impurity transport coefficients and the penetration efficiencies of intrinsic and injected impurities through the separatrix of diverted Alcator C-Mod discharges have been measured using x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopic diagnostics. The dominant low Z intrinsic impurity in C-Mod is carbon which is found to be present in concentrations of less than 0.5%. Molybdenum, from the plasma facing components, is the dominant high Z impurity and is typically found in concentrations of about 0.02%. Trace amounts of medium and high Z nonrecycling impurities can be injected at the midplane using the laser blow-off technique and calibrated amounts of recycling, gaseous impurities can be introduced through fast valves either at the midplane or at various locations in the divertor chamber. A five chord crystal x-ray spectrometer array with high spectral resolution is used to provide spatial profiles of high charge state impurities. An absolutely calibrated, grazing incidence VUV spectrograph with high time resolution and a broad spectral range allows for the simultaneous measurement of many impurity lines. Various filtered soft x-ray diode arrays allow for spatial reconstructions of plasma emissivity. The observed brightnesses and emissivities from a number of impurity lines are used together with the mist transport code and a collisional-radiative atomic physics model to determine charge state density profiles and impurity transport coefficients. Comparisons of the deduced impurity content with the measured Zeff and total radiated power of the plasma are made. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A photometrically calibrated polychromator utilizing layered synthetic microstructure coated flats (also known as multilayer mirrors, MLMs) as dispersive elements is operating on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak to measure the molybdenum emissions in the XUV. Molybdenum, the first wall material in C-Mod, is the dominant high Z impurity in the plasma. Three spectral regions are measured by three separate MLM-detector channels. The characteristic charge states in the region between 30–40 A(ring) are Mo xv to Mo xx, between 65–90 A(ring) are Mo xxiv to Mo xxvi, and between 110–130 A(ring) are Mo xxxi and Mo xxxii. The instrument's spectral resolution varies from 0.4 A(ring) at λ=30 A(ring) to 7 A(ring) at λ=130 A(ring). The temporal resolution is typically 1.0 ms, but sampling rates of less than 1 ms are possible. The instrument was photometrically calibrated at The Johns Hopkins University using a Manson soft x-ray light source. Power loss estimates from Mo xxiv to Mo xxvi, Mo xxxi, and Mo xxxii have been obtained during ohmic and ICRF plasmas using the mist transport code to model the molybdenum charge state distributions in the plasma. The Mo concentrations have also been determined. Mo contributes ∼0.1 to the Zeff of 1.3 during ohmic plasmas. This contribution increases during ICRF heating to ∼0.5 of the Zeff of 2. The polychromator functions as a time-resolved soft x-ray emission power loss monitor. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: X-ray spectra from Alcator C-Mod plasmas have been collected using a high wavelength resolution, five spectrometer array during a wide range of operating conditions, providing a large variety of diagnostic information. Each independently scannable von Hamos type spectrometer has a wavelength range of 2.8–4.0 A(ring), and the complete Rydberg series of helium- and hydrogenlike argon have been observed. Spectra of Δn=1 ground state transitions and satellites taken along different chords have been simulated using the results from a collisional-radiative model and the mist transport code. Line ratios are very sensitive to the electron temperature and deduced profiles are in good agreement with ECE profiles. Line intensities have been utilized to obtain absolute argon densities. The widths of the strongest lines have been used to deduce ion temperature profiles. Transitions from around n=9 to the ground state are populated by charge exchange in the outer regions of the plasma and these line intensities have been used to determine the neutral hydrogen density profile. Spectra from heliumlike scandium have been obtained during injection experiments and time histories and line intensities have been utilized to determine impurity transport coefficients. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A series of transport experiments has been carried out in Alcator-C-Mod. [Phys Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)]. Data from both Ohmic and ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heated plasmas can be fitted with an L-mode (low mode) scaling law. The Ohmic τE's show no scaling with density in any regime and can reach values of 2–3 times neo-Alcator. Impurity confinement has been studied with the laser blow-off technique with τI showing nearly linear scaling with plasma current. Ohmic and ICRF H modes are obtained over a wide range of discharge parameters, extending the range in the international database for nB, by almost a factor of 10. The power threshold for ELM-free (edge localized mode) discharges is in rough agreement with the scaling P/S=0.044nB. Energy diffusivities of Ohmic and ICRF heated plasmas have been measured from local analysis of plasma profiles and power fluxes. The same analysis produces a value for plasma resistivity which lies between the Spitzer and neoclassical calculations. Analysis of plasma transients have yielded values for particle diffusivity and convection velocity. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The regime of high particle and energy confinement known as the H mode [Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1408 (1982)] has been extended to a unique range of operation for divertor tokamaks up to toroidal fields of nearly 8 T, line-averaged electron densities of 3×1020 m−3, and surface power densities of nearly 0.6 MW/m2 in the compact high-field tokamak Alcator C Mod [Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)]. H modes are achieved in Alcator C Mod with Ion Cyclotron Resonant Frequency (ICRF) heating and with Ohmic heating alone without boronization of the all molybdenum tiled first wall. Large increases in charge exchange flux are observed during the H mode over the entire range of energies from 2 to 10 keV. There appears to be an upper limit to the midplane neutral pressure, of about 0.08 Pa above which no H modes have been observed. The plasmas with the best energy confinement have the lowest midplane neutral pressures, below 0.01 Pa. There is an edge electron temperature threshold such that Te≥280 eV ±40 eV for sustaining the H mode, which is equal at L–H and H–L transitions. The hysteresis in the threshold power between L–H and H–L transitions is less than 25% on average. Both core and edge particle confinement improve by a factor of 2–4 from L mode to H mode. Energy confinement also improves by up to a factor of 2 over L mode. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Detailed measurements and transport analysis of divertor conditions in Alcator C-Mod [Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] are presented for a range of line-averaged densities, 0.7〈n¯e〈2.2×1020 m−3. Three parallel heat transport regimes are evident in the scrape-off layer: sheath-limited conduction, high-recycling divertor, and detached divertor, which can coexist in the same discharge. Local cross-field pressure gradients are found to scale simply with a local electron temperature. This scaling is consistent with classical electron parallel conduction being balanced by anomalous cross-field transport (χ⊥∼0.2 m2 s−1) proportional to the local pressure gradient. A 60%–80% of divertor power is radiated in attached discharges, approaching 100% in detached discharges. Detachment occurs when the heat flux to the plate is low and the plasma pressure is high (Te∼5 eV). High neutral pressures in the divertor are nearly always present (1–20 mTorr), sufficient to remove parallel momentum via ion–neutral collisions. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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