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  • Springer  (423)
  • Blackwell Science Pty  (7)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • 1995-1999  (431)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The main aim of the present project is to study the feasibility of using different trophic organisms for evaluating the toxicity of dredged sediments arising in Hong Kong. A total of eight sediment samples (duplicate samples collected from four selected sites: Kowloon Bay, Tsing Yi, Chek Lap Kok, and Double Haven) of Hong Kong coastal waters were analyzed for the total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, total organic carbon, acid volatile sulfides, simultaneously extracted metals, redox potential, and 12 organic micropollutants. The sediment elutriates were also analysed for the various metal concentrations, as well as contents of ammonia-N, nitrate, total sulfide, sulfate, and total organic carbon. Elutriate Sediment Toxicity Tests (ESTT) were also conducted, using two microalgae (Skeletonema costatum, a diatom and Dunaliella tertiolecta, a flagellate), juvenile shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and juvenile fish (Trachinotus obtaus). Two commercially available tests using bacteria (Microtox Test and Toxi-Chromotest) also were employed to test both the solid phase and elutriates of the sediments. The results of Microtox test on the solid phase, and bioassay tests using diatom on the sediment elutriate, especially the former, were correlated significantly (p 〈 0.05) with a number of physico-chemical properties of sediments and elutriates. It is recommended that a combination of a liquid-phase bioassay using diatom and a solid-phase bioassay using Microtox test should be used for screening a large number of sediment samples. However, the presence of ammonia in the sediments containing a high content of organic matter seemed to interfere the detection of contamination impacts.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: hEGF; plasmid pSLT; ytl2-incR stabilization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A plasmid stabilization system, active in high copy-number plasmids, was cloned from the large resident plasmid, pSLT, of Salmonella typhimurium. The ytl2 gene, together with a 249-bp region (termed incR) downstream of the gene, imparted 〉104-fold stability to a pBR322-based plasmid. The ytl2-incR region was then used to stabilize a recombinant plasmid carrying the human epidermal growth factor gene (with the Escherichia coli K-12 ompA signal sequence), behind the lacUV5 promoter. In shake flask tests to optimize expression of human epidermal growth factor, loss of recombinant plasmid was 〈1% when growth (both before and after induction with isopropyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) took place even in the absence of antibiotic selection, and the specific activity of secreted human epidermal growth factor was ca 20 μg per 108 cells at harvest, compared to a figure of ca 3 μg per 108 cells when a comparable plasmid, but devoid of the ytl2-incR region, was employed, as outgrowth of plasmid-free cells after induction severely compromised the specific activity of the secreted product.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 42.55R; 68.35; 81.40
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Irinotecan ; CPT-11 ; Topoisomerase I ; Topoisomerase II ; Treatment sequence effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The DNA topoisomerases I and II are the target of several clinically important antineoplastic agents which produce DNA cleavage by stabilization of the covalent DNA-protein bond with resultant cell death after DNA synthesis is attempted. Depletion of the target topoisomerase and reciprocal changes in the other occur with drug treatment. Purpose and methods: To develop empiric treatment regimens of combinations and sequences of agents directed against topoisomerase I (irinotecan/CPT-11) and II (etoposide and doxorubicin), in vivo studies were performed in mice bearing the EMT-6 mammary tumor to assess efficacy, host tolerance and the resultant biochemical changes in topoisomerase mRNA and protein. Results: At 24 h after therapy, depletion of the target topoisomerase mRNA and protein with reciprocal increases in the alternate topoisomerase mRNA and, to a lesser extent, protein were noted. No therapeutic antagonism was found with any combination or sequence of agents, and therapeutic antagonism was noted with concurrent irinotecan/etoposide and sequential doxorubicin/irinotecan. Depletion of target topoisomerases by combined therapy beyond a threshold necessary for therapeutic efficacy produced no additional benefit. Conclusions: Antineoplastic therapy with combinations of topoisomerase I and II agents is feasible and may produce therapeutic synergy. The appropriate sequence may depend on the particular agents used. The rationale for such therapy, that topoisomerases I and II may have reciprocal and compensatory interactions, is supported by the biochemical data.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: biodiversity ; biogeography ; ecology ; freshwater ; fungi ; nutrient cycling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract There are more than 600 species of freshwater fungi with a greater number known from temperate, as compared to tropical, regions. Three main groups can be considered which include Ingoldian fungi, aquatic ascomycetes and non-Ingoldian hyphomycetes, chytrids and, oomycetes. The fungi occurring in lentic habitats mostly differ from those occurring in lotic habitats. Although there is no comprehensive work dealing with the biogeography of all groups of freshwater fungi, their distribution probably follows that of Ingoldian fungi, which are either cosmopolitan, restricted to pantemperate or pantropical regions, or in a few cases, have a restricted distribution. Freshwater fungi are thought to have evolved from terrestrial ancestors. Many species are clearly adapted to life in freshwater as their propagules have specialised aquatic dispersal abilities. Freshwater fungi are involved in the decay of wood and leafy material and also cause diseases of plants and animals. These areas are briefly reviewed. Gaps in our knowledge of freshwater fungi are discussed and areas in need of research are suggested.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8927
    Keywords: Hydrogen-1 ; carbon-13 ; nitrogen-15 ; cadmium-113 ; NMR ; infrared ; zinc(II) ; cadmium(II) ; isothiocyanate ; complexation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A study of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) complexes with isothiocyanate ion has been completed, using a low-temperature, multinuclear magnetic resonance technique that permits the observation of separate resonance signals for bound and free ligand, and Cd(II) metal ion. The Zn2+–NCS− complexes were studied by 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR spectroscopy. In the 1H spectra, the intensity of the coordinated water signal, corresponding to a Zn(II) hydration number of six in the absence of NCS−, decreases dramatically as this anion is added, indicating the complexing process involves more than a simple 1:1 ligand replacement. The 13C and 15N NMR spectra reveal signals for four species, most reasonably assigned to a series of tetrahedrally coordinated Zn2+–NCS− complexes. In the Cd2+–NCS− solution spectra, the 13C and 15N signals for four complexes also are observed and they are three line patterns, corresponding to a doublet from 113Cd J-coupling, and a dominant central peak, resulting from bonding to magnetically inactive Cd isotopes. The 113Cd spectra, showing signals for four complexes, correlate well in all respects with the 13C and 15N results, including coupling in specific cases. The spectral results for both metal ions reflect binding at the nitrogen atom of NCS−, with the complexes changing from an octahedral to a tetrahedral configuration when doing so. Confirming evidence for these conclusions also was provided by several infrared measurements of these metal–ion systems.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Keywords: Trace metals ; aluminium copper ; zinc ; tea ; infusion ; PR China
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present project aims to investigate the possible contamination of teas with the trace metals: Al, Cu and Zn. Tea bushes sampled from two tea plantations in the northern part of Guangdong Province accumulated higher concentrations of Cu and Zn in young leaves, and of Al in old leaves. The analysis of the three metals in tea produced in different provinces indicated higher Al levels in those obtained from Guangdong and Yunnan Provinces, which may be due to the lower soil pH in these areas. Green tea had the lowest Al concentration among the four types of tea studied, as only the bud and two young leaves are used, whereas older leaves are used for other types of tea (black, Oolong and Puerh tea). The transfer of Al, Cu and Zn from soil to different parts of tea bushes was low in general, except for Zn at Lechang tea plantation which next to a Pb/Zn mine, where a higher transfer was observed from young leaves to tea products, indicating possible metal contamination during tea processing. However, low concentrations of Cu and Zn (less than 0.07 mg Cu L-1 and 0.17 mg Zn L-1), and moderate amounts of Al (2.1-2.5 mg L-1) were obtained in the tea liquor (1% hot water extracts).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2983
    Keywords: Lead-zinc mine tailings ; acid generation test
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Acid mine drainage problems were experienced in a Pb–Zn mine operation at Lechang, in the northern part of Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China. Geochemical and acid generation evaluations were made on fresh tailings including tailings fine, tailings sand and high sulphide tailings, and oxidised tailings with the aim of providing information on mine rehabilitation. All fresh tailings had a pH higher than 7 while the oxidised tailings had a pH of 4.9 (range 1.6 to 7.4). Only samples with pH 〈 3 had an electrical conductivity (EC) 〉 4 dS m⊃-1. Total S contents of all tailings samples were very high with the high sulphide fraction having a mean S content of 38%. All fresh tailings had a high acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) while half of the oxidised tailings had an ANC less than zero. The results from the acid–base account and the net acid generation test indicated that all fresh and oxidised tailings samples were acid-forming except for the sand fraction samples. All tailings samples contained high total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn but low concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphorus. The preliminary results demonstrated that the tailings were all acid-forming especially the high sulphide fraction which should be kept permanently unexposed under impermeable cap or water.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-198X
    Keywords: Key words: Continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration ; Hyperammonemia ; Peritoneal dialysis ; Urea cycle disorder
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We report the use of continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration (CAVHD) in a neonate with severe hyperammonemia due to a urea cycle disorder. We compared the ammonia clearance (C NH3) for peritoneal dialysis (PD) and CAVHD. C NH3 for CAVHD was 7.45 ml/min per m2 at a dialysate flow of 300 ml/h and was 10.55 ml/min per m2 at a dialysate flow rate of 600 ml/h. The mean PD clearance was 2.15 ml/min per m2. Our data suggest that CAVHD is superior to PD for the removal of plasma ammonia. We conclude that CAVHD should be considered a reasonable alternative in the treatment of neonatal hyperammonemia in urea cycle disorders when medical treatment fails.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-8862
    Keywords: Triosmium alkylidyne carbonyl clusters ; polyvinylpyridine ; MLCT transition.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A neutral triosmium alkylidyne carbonyl cluster containing the 4-vinylpyridine (4vpy) moiety [Os3(µ-H)2(CO)9(µ3-CNC5H4-CH=CH2)] (1) has been prepared as red crystalline solids in good yield. Monomer (1) was copolymerized with styrene in the presence of α,α'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) in chloroform at 60°C and a polymer-immobilized alkylidyne cluster of osmium was obtained. To compare the spectroscopic properties with the copolymers, a structurally similar repeating unit of the copolymers, [Os3(µ-H)2(CO)9(µ-3-CNC5H4-CH2CH3)I](2), has also been synthesized and characterized.
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