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  • Springer  (7)
  • 1995-1999  (5)
  • 1965-1969  (1)
  • 1940-1944  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words  Apoptosis ; Bcl-2 ; Bax ; Bcl-x ; Cerebellum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the expression of the apoptosis modulating proteins Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-x in the cerebellum of mutant lurcher and weaver mice. Lurcher Purkinje cells and weaver germinal (granule neuron progenitor) cells both die via apoptosis during the postnatal cerebellar development. No significant changes in the expression patterns were detected prior to the actual cell death process. Instead apoptotic lurcher Purkinje cells exhibited increased Bax and Bcl-x expression, while surviving cells had an expression pattern similar to that of healthy littermates. Increased Bax expression was also found in apoptotic weaver germinal cells, while no change of Bcl-x expression was detected. Bcl-2 was expressed at low levels in cerebellar neurons and no loss of Bcl-2 was evident. The observed expression patterns of Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-x protein in apoptotic lurcher and weaver neurons support the hypothesis that the execution of neuronal apoptosis involves increased expression of Bax, which could represent a general mechanism in diverse neurodegenerative processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-675X
    Keywords: Apoptosis ; apoptin ; BAG-1 ; Bcl-2 ; p53 ; programmed cell death
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract BAG-1 has been identified as a Bcl-2-binding protein that inhibits apoptosis, either alone or in co-operation with Bcl-2. Here we show that BAG-1 inhibits p53- induced apoptosis in the human tumour cell line Saos-2. In contrast, BAG-1 was unable to inhibit the p53-independent pathway induced by apoptin, an apoptosis-inducing protein derived from chicken anaemia virus. Whereas BAG-1 seemed to co-operate with Bcl-2 to repress p53-induced apoptosis, co-expression of these proteins had no inhibitory effect on apoptin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, Bcl-2, and to some extent also BAG-1, paradoxically enhanced the apoptotic activity of apoptin. These results demonstrate that p53 and apoptin induce apoptosis through independent pathways, which are differentially regulated by BAG-1 and Bcl-2.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-675X
    Keywords: Apoptosis ; Bcl-2 ; dexamethasone ; Nb2 lymphoma ; Pim-1 ; prolactin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The parental rat Nb2 lymphoma is a prolactin (PRL)-dependent T cell line. Exposure of a PRL-independent subline, Nb2-SFJCD1, to sodium butyrate (NaBT) causes transient reversal of their growth factor-independent proliferation in association with constitutive expression of protooncogenes pim-1and c-myc. In the present study, we investigated the effect of NaBT treatment on the sensitivity of Nb2-SFJCD1 cells to dexamethasone (DEX)-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment with NaBT (2 mM, 72 h) partially reversed resistance to apoptosis in Nb2-SFJCD1 cells exposed to DEX (100 nM) for 12 h, assessed by flow cytometric analyses of DNA fragmentation. However, the cytolytic effect of DEX was abrogated by PRL i n a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Eval uati on of apoptosis-associated gene expression in NaBT-pre-treated cultures incubated with DEX or DEX+PRL indicated that the apoptosis resistance did not stem from altered bcl-2 or bax expression. However, there was a strong correlation between the resistance to DEX-activated apoptosis and their enhanced expression of pim-1 mRNA and protein. The results show that it is possible to reverse DEX-induced apoptosis of Nb2 pre-T cells and suggest the pim-1 gene product has an important role as a suppressor of this process, perhaps functioning as a mediator of PRL action.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-675X
    Keywords: Apoptosis ; bcl-2 ; cisplatin resistance ; p53
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Since apoptosis is the primary mode of cell death induced by cisplatin, the role of apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene products in cisplatin resistance was investigated in four human cisplatin-resistant cell lines of different tumour type. A common feature of the resistant sublines was a reduced susceptibility to drug-induced apoptosis compared to parental sensitive lines. Loss of wild-type p53 function was not a general event associated with the development of drug resistance. An increased bcl-2 expression was found in resistant cells characterized by mutant p53 (A431/Pt and IGROV-1/Pt), whereas in osteosarcoma (U2-OS/Pt) and in ovarian carcinoma (A2780/CP) cells with wild-type p53, bcl-2 levels were markedly reduced. U2-OS/Pt cells had a 16-fold increase in the level of Bcl-xL protein. Stable transfection of U2-OS cells with bcl-xL cDNA conferred a low level of drug resistance to cisplatin, suggesting that overexpression of this gene contributes to the ci splatin-resistant phenotype of this osteosarcoma cell system. In conclusion, these observations suggest a variable contribution of apoptosis-related genes to cisplatin resistance depending on the biological background of the cell system and presumably reflecting different pathways of apoptosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Summary Previous methods of calculating the internal impedance of rectangular and T-shaped conductors have made arbitrary assumptions about the form of the magnetic field. These have led to inconsistencies. A method is developed which necessitates less restrictive assumptions, thereby removing the inconsistencies. Results are compared for typical conductor sizes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0417
    Keywords: saline lakes ; paleolimnology ; paleoclimate ; diatoms ; taphonomy ; preservation ; Spain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract In palaeoclimate research, fossil diatoms from saline lakes can be excellent indicators of past salinity, a proxy for climate change, although they are sometimes poorly preserved in sediment cores. Spain has numerous salt lakes but the potential of diatoms for studies of climate change has never been investigated. A comprehensive survey of diatom preservation is described based on modern and fossil diatoms from short cores (〈50 cm depth) in a representative data-set of 59 sites, and the main factors affecting preservation are investigated using principal components analysis (PCA). Most lakes do not preserve a diatom record; four sites in southern Spain are identified which both contain diatoms and have suitable limnological characteristics for a climate study. Many lakes are ephemeral and the physical effects of desiccation, coupled with other factors such as turbidity and high salinity, are the main factors enhancing diatom dissolution or their failure to be incorporated into the sediment record.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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