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  • Springer  (12)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
  • 1995-1999  (12)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic factor ; Cyclosporin A ; heart transplantation ; renal function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mechanism(s) causing high levels of plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in cardiac allograft recipients is(are) unclear. The kidney is important for the clearance of ANF and renal function may decline with cyclosporin A therapy in these patients. The relationship between plasma ANF level and renal function and also the pharmacokinetics of a continuous infusion of ANF (15.5 ng·kg−1·min−1 for 60 min) was examined in 6 cardiac allograft recipients on cyclosporin A therapy. Resting plasma ANF levels were significantly higher in these patients than in 8 healthy subjects (71 vs. 21 ng·l−1). Both effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were significantly lower in these patients than in healthy subjects (215 vs. 617 ml·min−1 and 55 vs. 102 ml·min−1 respectively). There was a significant inverse correlation between plasma ANF and ERPF (r=-0.86) and between plasma ANF and GFR (r=-0.81). During the period of ANF infusion, steady state plasma ANF levels were significantly higher in cardiac allograft recipients. Total body clearance of ANF was marginally lower in these patients than in healthy subjects (60 vs. 10.0 l·min−1) although this difference did not reach statistical significance. Derived endogenous secretion rate of ANF was threefold higher in patients when compared to healthy subjects (633 vs. 208 ng·min−1). We have therefore shown that cardiac allograft recipients on cyclosporin A have elevated plasma ANF levels and also decreased renal function. Pharmacokinetic analysis have shown that this increase in plasma ANF levels is due more to increased ANF secretion than to decreased ANF clearance in these patients.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Lisinopril ; Diastolic dysfunction ; congestive heart failure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study examined the effects of lisinopril on diastolic function in 12 normotensive patients (mean age 72 years) with symptomatic congestive heart failure, intact left ventricular systolic function and abnormal diastolic function secondary to ischaemic heart disease in a placebo-controlled double blind crossover study, with each treatment dosed orally for 5 continuous weeks. Compared to placebo, lisinopril significantly decreased blood pressure, increased plasma renin activity without altering heart rate or plasma norepinephrine. There was no statistically significant improvement with lisinopril in radionuclide derived peak filling rate and time to peak filling rate, in Doppler echocardiographic measurements of the ratio of peak flow velocity in early diastole to the peak flow velocity of atrial contraction (E:A ratio) and in visual analogue scales of symptoms. Thus, although angiotension converting enzyme inhibitors may have an established role in the treatment of heart failure secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction, its use in patients with isolated diastolic dysfunction remains unclear.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2129
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Schmerztherapie ; Tumorschmerz ; Kopfschmerz ; Rückenschmerz ; Epidemiologie ; Key words Pain management ; Cancer pain ; Headache ; Back pain ; Epidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract In Middle Franconia, one of the larger Bavarian administrative division (population 1994: 1,657,101), the number of patients suffering from cancer pain, chronic headache and chronic back pain is not known. Furthermore, there are no data on interdisciplinary organization of outpatient pain management. Methods: All physicians and psychologists involved in outpatient pain management in Middle Franconia (n=2130) were asked (questionnaires) to estimate the number of patients suffering from cancer pain, chronic (〉6 months) headache and chronic (〉6 months) back pain treated the last 12 months. Results: 264 (12.4%) responses were analyzed; 107,346 patients had been treated in the last 12 months, 67% by a single specialist and 33% by two or more specialists. The participation of psychotherapists and anesthetists in outpatient management of pain patients was poor; 22,754 (21%) patients were thought to need multidisciplinary algesia therapy in a pain clinic, which actually does not exist in Middle Franconia. Conclusion: The data presented suggest that patients suffering from chronic pain are not optimally managed in Middle Franconia. Regional institutions for multidisciplinary pain treatment have to be established close to where chronic pain patients live.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Zur orientierenden Schätzung der ambulanten Versorgung von Patienten mit Tumor-, Kopf- und Rückenschmerzen im bayerischen Regierungsbezirk Mittelfranken wurden im Oktober 1995 an alle an der ambulanten Behandlung von Patienten beteiligten Ärzte und nichtärztlichen Psychotherapeuten dieser Region (n=2130) Fragebögen gesandt. 264 Kollegen (12,4%) lieferten auswertbare Angaben. Von diesen Kollegen wurden in den letzten 12 Monaten 107 346 Patienten mit chronischen Schmerzen behandelt. Davon wurden 72 255 Patienten (67%) monodisziplinär und 35 091 Patienten (33%) ambulant-interdisziplinär behandelt. Der Anteil der Psychotherapeuten und Anästhesisten an der ambulanten Diagnostik und Therapie von Schmerzpatienten war gering. Bei 22 754 Patienten (21%) wurde aufgrund der Therapieresistenz der Beschwerden unter ambulanten Bedingungen eine multidisziplinäre algesiologische Diagnostik und Therapie unter stationären oder teilstationären Bedingungen für notwendig erachtet. Derartige Einrichtungen bestehen derzeit in Mittelfranken nicht. Die Zahl problematischer Schmerzpatienten ist als Mindestzahl aufzufassen und unterstreicht die Notwendigkeit, wohnortnah adäquate schmerztherapeutische Behandlungseinrichtungen aufzubauen.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  An Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) cDNA was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Secretion of the protein into the growth medium was efficiently directed by the fungal leader sequence, and processing occurred at the same site as in Aspergillus. The expression level was significantly enhanced by using a “short” version of the yeast ADHI promoter. An additional increase in the yield of heterologous protein was due to a higher plasmid stability and a rise in plasmid copy number. This was achieved by deleting most of the bacterial sequences from the expression vector. The yeast-derived enzyme showed the same enzymatic and biochemical properties as the fungal polygalacturonase, such as substrate specificity, pH and temperature optima and pI value. The yeast-derived enzyme, however, showed a higher degree of glycosylation and exhibited a more pronounced temperature stability than the fungal enzyme.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase is known as the rate-limiting enzyme in early sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. To eliminate this regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a truncated HMG1 gene, producing a form of the enzyme that lacks the membrane-binding region (i.e. amino acids 1–552), was constructed and overexpressed in this yeast. The transformed strains accumulated large amounts of the sterol precursor squalene, while the levels of ergosterol and a number of other sterol compounds were only slightly elevated. These findings suggest that HMG-CoA reductase is not the only rate-limiting step in sterol synthesis and its overexpression cannot significantly influence this pathway beyond the sterol precursor squalene.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract An Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) cDNA was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Secretion of the protein into the growth medium was efficiently directed by the fungal leader sequence, and processing occurred at the same site as in Aspergillus. The expression level was significantly enhanced by using a “short” version of the yeast ADHI promoter. An additional increase in the yield of heterologous protein was due to a higher plasmid stability and a rise in plasmid copy number. This was achieved by deleting most of the bacterial sequences from the expression vector. The yeast-derived enzyme showed the same enzymatic and biochemical properties as the fungal polygalacturonase, such as substrate specificity, pH and temperature optima and pI value. The yeast-derived enzyme, however, showed a higher degree of glycosylation and exhibited a more pronounced temperature stability than the fungal enzyme.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The sterol-acyl transferase encoded by the gene ARE2 was transcriptionally deregulated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to understand its role in sterol storage and sterol enrichment. Our results show that sterols can indeed be enriched in yeast by enhancing the capacity of the cells to esterify sterols. ARE2 overexpression had no impact on the accumulation of the early sterols such as lanosterol, but influenced the later intermediates and the end product ergosterol. Thus an enhanced conversion of free sterols to their esterified counterparts may provide a tool to increase the overall sterol content of the yeast cell. We have previously shown that the overexpression of a truncated version of the key enzyme of the early sterol pathway, HMG-CoA reductase (HMG1), leads to an increase in the early sterols such as lanosterol and zymosterol. The simultaneous deregulation of both genes in one strain produces a cumulative effect in that both early and late sterols are enhanced. Karmellae-like structures can be detected when Are2p is overexpressed. Are2p therefore constitutes a new member of the karmellae-inducing protein family.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Creutzfeldt-jakob disease ; Dural graft ; Transmission
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 26-year old female who had received a cervical cadaveric dural graft 7 years earlier developed psychotic behavior and generalized myoclonic jerks. Following rapid deterioration and appearance of high-charge sharp periodic waves on electroencephalography she died within two months. We believe that this patient is the first German who acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by dural implant.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Apnoea testing ; Brain death ; Blood pressure ; Heart rate ; Cardiovascular changes ; Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring ; CO2 insufflation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To determine changes of blood pressure and heart rate during apnoea testing for brain death without (A) and with (B) artificial CO2 augmentation. Design: Prospective, consecutive study. Setting: 12 intensive care units in six towns in Northern Bavaria. Patients and participants: A total of 55 apnoea tests were performed on 55 consecutive patients as part of the determination of brain death, 27 without and 28 with CO2 augmentation. Interventions: Apnoea tests following oxygenation with 100 % O2 either after reduction of ventilatory volume (A) or after insufflation of CO2 during normoventilation (B). In each case, an arterial partial CO2 pressure of at least 8 kPa was documented. Results: All apnoea tests were without serious adverse effects (hypoxia, newly induced cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac asystole). An increased dopamine infusion rate was deemed necessary in only one case of group (A) because of marked systolic hypotension ( 〈 8 kPa). Individual variation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) did not exceed + 62 to –46 % and + 49 to –52 % respectively, in group (A) and + 35 to –57 % and + 40 to –48 % respectively, in group (B). Variation of heart rate (HR) remained within the range + 24 to –31 % in group (A) and + 37 to –22 % in group (B). Conclusions: HR varied less than BP. The possibility of a marked relative rise or fall of BP in group (A) was equal; in group (B) there was a lower chance of rising BP. The chances for a rise or fall in HR were equal for the two groups. There was a tendency for less variation of cardiovascular parameters in group (B).
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Pneumoconiosis ; N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase ; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) ; Disease models ; Animal macrophages
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract N-acetyl-beta(β)-D-glucosaminidase is a lysosomal enzyme secreted by alveolar macrophages in response to phagocytosis of particulate material. Alveolar macrophages participate in the degradation and fibrosis of pulmonary tissue that results in pneumoconiosis. Known quantities of four characterized respirable dusts were bronchoscopically placed into the right caudal lung lobe of macaque monkeys. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from dust-exposed right lung and unexposed left lung of the same individuals at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks after dust instillation. The samples were tested for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity to determine if the enzyme levels could serve as an indicator of pulmonary injury induced by generic coal dusts when compared to known fibrogenic and nuisance dusts. Installation of generic quartz, anthracite, or TiO2 dusts produced significant elevations of enzyme activity and increased numbers of macrophages in the dust-exposed lobes. Elevations in enzymatic activity and macrophage numbers were greatest in response to generic quartz dust. These results suggest that quantitative levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity may be a useful indicator of acute and chronic lung injury following exposure to fibrogenic and nonfibrogenic dusts.
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